The character of a regiment depends on its non-commissioned officers; if they are ignorant, indolent, and worthless, it is sure to be an undisciplined mob, and will disgrace its officers and country on all occasions; whereas, if they do their full duty, it is certain to possess every military virtue.  The gallantry of a single corporal has frequently covered a regiment with permanent glory.
   Non-commissioned officers should realize the importance of their duties, and be models of correct military deportment.  They should always bear in mind that kind and gentlemanly treatment is the best means to get the men to do their duty cheerfully.  They are expected to instruct soldiers in all their duties, and if necessary, to use force to make them perform them.  They should impress the fact on those under their command, that the misconduct of two or three men may injure the reputation of an entire regiment or forever disgrace it; also that the



humblest soldier is, to a great extent, the guardian of the good repute of his troop and regiment.
   The non-commissioned officer should always treat his superiors with ceremonious respect and due deference, and remember that his authority over those below him will be in proportion to the extent of his military knowledge and the correctness of his deportment.  He will gain the respect of his superiors by excelling in bravery, intelligence, and manners.  He should never overlook contempt or disobedience from those under his command, and should consider his chevrons as sacred as the stars of a general, remembering that the greatest military man in the world ever knew was proud of being called "the little corporal."
   The non-commissioned officers of a cavalry regiment are as follows, - viz.: one sergeant-major, two hospital stewards, one veterinary surgeon, one regimental quartermaster sergeant, one regimental commissary sergeant, one chief trumpeter, orderly or first sergeant, sergeants, and corporals.  The limits will only permit giving an outline of their duties: they will receive additional instructions from their superiors, which they must cheerfully obey, even though they should differ from those contained in this book.



The sergeant-major should assist the adjutant in all his duties, - at guard mounting, dress parade, drill, &c.  He should make out all reports, returns, and other papers pertaining to the regiment.  He must see that the orderly sergeants are supplied with all the orders that affect their companies.  He should be able to instruct the non-commissioned officers of the regiment in their duties.  He should have an exact knowledge of Army Regulations and Cavalry Tactics.  He should know every thing pertaining to the regiment, from the simplest detail to the most complicated maneuver.  To encourage him in his performance of his arduous and complicated duties, he should usually be promoted to the adjutancy when that office is vacant.

Hospital Steward.

   The position of a regimental hospital steward is one of great trust, and one in which a man who does not know his duty, or who, knowing it, does not perform it, is likely to do immense harm.
   The hospital steward should be, first, a competent apothecary; second, a good accountant.  The first is necessary, because he has charge and distribution of all medicines and hospital stores, - always, of course, under the orders of the surgeon.



   The second is necessary, because he will be expected to make out the morning sick report, the weekly and monthly reports, and all invoices and requisitions.
   He should be, moreover, a man of sound sense; for many a man's life has been saved by a hospital steward.

Veterinary Surgeon.

   The veterinary surgeon is required to have graduated at some veterinary school, or to have passed a satisfactory examination.  He is responsible for the health of the horses and their shoeing.  He has charge of the company farriers and blacksmiths when the regiment is together, and must see that they do their work in a proper manner.

Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant.

   The quartermaster sergeant sustains the same relations to the quartermaster that the sergeant-major does to the adjutant.  He should learn all that pertains to the quartermaster's department, and obey no orders except from the quartermaster and the commanding officer pertaining to the public property in his care.  He is regimental wagonmaster, and should make a morning report to the quartermaster of the drivers, horses, &c.


Regimental Commissary Sergeant.

All that is said of the quartermaster sergeant applies to the commissary sergeant.  He assists the commissary as does the quartermaster sergeant does the quartermaster.

Regimental Saddler.

   The regimental saddler receives orders and instructions from the commander of the regiment.  He is required to repair the horse-equipments of the field and staff of the regiment.  He instructs the company-saddlers how to do their work; and when they are assembled to work in one shop, he acts as foreman.
   He must keep a correct account of all the tools and material intrusted to his care, and at all times be able to account for them.

Chief Trumpeter.

   The chief trumpeter is charged with the instruction of the trumpeters.  He keeps the roster and makes details of the trumpeters.  The trumpeters are not under the orders of the orderly sergeant, unless the company acts singly.  On the march he details one to follow each field officer: he remains with the rest in the center of the regiment.  He is responsible for their drill, discipline, and appearance; he


must at once confine any trumpeter who is guilty of misconduct, and report it to the adjutant.

Orderly Sergeant.

   The orderly sergeant stands a similar relation to the captain that the sergeant-major does to the adjutant.  He is responsible for the discipline, appearance, and instruction of the company.  He must bear in mind that if he cannot control the enlisted men in all the details of service, it will be hard to make them stand up to the work in battle.  He should have the knowledge prescribed for the sergeant-major, as far as it extends to the company.  He will find "The Company Clerk," by General Kautz, a great assistance, and should procure it.  It is sold by the publishers of this book.
   He should not associate with persons below him in rank, nor call on commissioned officers except on business, or permit the enlisted men of the company to do so.  He should settle all minor disputes and quarrels, and not trouble the company commander with them, unless they are important.  If he acts justly and wisely, he is sure to be sustained by the company commander.  He must not demand menial service from soldiers himself, nor allow other non-commissioned officers to do so.  He should study the character of the men, and recommend those for



promotion who have the best military qualifications, giving precedence to the sober, honest and truthful.

Company Quartermaster Sergeant.

   The company quartermaster sergeant is responsible for the clothing, camp and garrison equipage, forage, ammunition, &c. to the company commander.  He draws all these articles from the proper officers on requisition of the company commander, and issues them under orders of the orderly sergeant in the manner prescribed in Army Regulations, or as the company commander may direct.  He should be present at all roll-calls, drills, parades, &c.  He should not be detailed for grand guard, &c., unless the company is sent on that duty.  When the company is ordered to march, he should superintend the loading of the wagons, &c.  He should have charge of the wagon and wagoner when the company acts singly.

Company Commissary Sergeant.

   The company commissary sergeant has charge of the rations of the company.  He should issue rations daily to the corporals of the messes, and received the saving on the rations from them.  He must be present at all company parades, drills, &c.  In other


respects his duties are the same as the company quartermaster sergeant.


The sergeants are usually placed in charge of squads.  They are particularly responsible for the good order of the men on the march, in tents, or quarters; for the cleanliness of the persons, arms, and accoutrements of the men, and their general soldierly deportment and appearance.  They should be able to teach all the cavalry tactics to the School of the Squadron Mounted.
   They must see that the men do all that is required by the Army Regulations, general orders, and the orders of the company commander, and that their squad is so instructed that the men cannot plead ignorance for neglect of duty.  On the march, they will see that the men do not leave the ranks.  In case a man reports that it is necessary to fall out of ranks, the sergeant will report it to the company commander, and act according to instructions.  Before starting on a march, he will inspect his squad and see that every thing is in proper order, - canteens filled, horses, ammunition, arms, equipments, &c. as prescribed.  He will be assisted in all these duties by the corporals of his squad; but he must not make them do his own peculiar duties.




   The corporals should be thorough in all the duties of a private, and be able to teach all prescribed for observance in this book.  They should learn the duties of sergeants, and assist them in the performance of all their duties.  They must at all times be ready to assist their superiors in enforcing discipline, using force without hesitation when ordered.
   Farriers or blacksmiths, trumpeters, saddlers, wagoners, must be present at the three daily roll-calls, at all parades, drills, &c., unless specially excused by their company commander.  They must be well acquainted with the duties of soldiers, in addition to that pertaining to their position.

Duties of Enlisted Men in Battle.

   All of the foregoing instructions are intended to prepare and qualify enlisted men to fight well in battle.  This is the grandest and most noble duty, and it should be kept constantly in view.  They should look to the day of battle as a climax of their existence, and be ready on that day to lay down their lives for their country.  At that trying hour they must be sustained by an implicit faith in the justness of their cause, trusting that to the wise, good, and honest men who are at the head of the


nation.  They must feel that a glorious immortality awaits those who are killed while fighting for their country's rights.
   They should have faith in the wisdom and skill of their commanders.  They should have no fears for their flanks and rear, but take good care of their immediate front, trusting to their comrades and their generals for the rest.  If the enemy are gaining at the part of the field where you are stationed, do not lose confidence in the general result; for they may be losing at all other points.  Then is your time to show sterling qualities.  Stand by your officers, and, by repeated charges, carry consternation into the ranks of the foe.  Take no prisoners, but wield the sword of vengeance until the enemy is completely routed.  Then spare those who ask for mercy.  In pursuit, be as swift as an eagle; in retreat, be a lion at bay.  Have no craven fear of death.  Murat survived hundreds of charges.  The same providence that protected him can save you.





   Military history abounds in instances where, on account of drill, discipline, and skill, a force has vanquished an enemy greatly superior in numbers.
   Timolean, who delivered Cyprus from tyranny, with only one thousand two hundred men, at Adranum, attacked and vanquished Leetes, who had five thousand troops.  Again, on the banks of the Crimesus, taking advantage of position, this active and determined general, with only three thousand men, put to complete rout the Carthaginian army, numbering seventy thousand.  Sertorius, in Lusitania, carried on successful warfare in the field with six thousand six hundred men against four Roman generals with an army numbering one hundred and twenty-eight thousand.  Cimon beat the Persians and drove them out of Greece with a force not one-third so large as theirs.  Hannibal gained his memorable victory at Cannae with a force not half so


large as the Romans, and killed upward of forty thousand, while his own loss was less than six thousand.  So it is well known that the triumph of Themistocles as Salamis was against very superior odds. In his great battle against Tigranes, Lucullus met and army consisting of two hundred and sixty thousand men.  His own force was but a twentieth part so great, and so small in comparison that Tigranes said, "If they came as ambassadors, there were too many of them; if as soldiers, too few."  Yet over this mighty host, so vain and confident in their numbers, the valiant army of Lucullus gained an overwhelming victory, killing multitudes of them.  So Marcus Lucullus, a brother of this warrior, when under Sylla, attacked an enemy more than thrice his number, killed eighteen thousand, and became complete master of the field.  Sylla also gained many victories over vastly superior forces.  The number of those he encountered at Orchomenus and at Chaeronea are spoken of as "myriads;" but his disciplined and experienced troops carried terrible and wide-spread havoc into the ranks of the enemy.  Marius, at Aquae Sextiae, with greatly inferior numbers, overcame the multitudinous army of the Teutones and Ambrones, killing and capturing above one hundred thousand.  So numerous was the army of his enemy that they occu-


pied six days in marching, without intermission, by his camp.  Again, on the plain of Vercellae, with an army of fifty-two thousand, he cut to pieces the Cimbiran host, whose infantry formed a front extending thirty furlongs, with each flank of the same extent, and whose cavalry numbered fifteen thousand.  In the great battle of Leuetra, the Thebans had but six thousand men.  The Spartans had as least eighteen thousand.  The former, under command of Epaminondas, gained a complete victory over the Spartans, "and caused such a rout and slaughter as had never been known before."  In this action Pelopidas evinced incredible bravery, "and though he had no share in the chief command, but was only captain of a small band, gained as much honor by the days great success as Epaminondas."  So, at Pharsalas, Pelopidas with only three hundred mounted men routed a large force under Alexander of Pherae.  When informed that Alexander was advancing toward him with a great army, "So much the better," said he; "for we shall beat so many the more."  So Shakespeare makes Henry V. utter a similar remark, in that stirring speech before the battle of Agincourt, which every captain should know by heart, where he says, -


"If we are mark'd to die, we are enough
To do our country loss; and if to live,
The fewer men, the greater share of the honor."

   Caesar, with a force of only seven thousand, in one battle defeated and almost wholly destroyed the army of the Gauls, numbering seventy thousand.  Napoleon gained his important victory at Marengo with a force of twenty-eight thousand over an enemy numbering forty thousand.  His still more decisive victory at Austerlitz was over an enemy superior in numbers.  The force on his side, including the reserved of Desaix, numbered seventy thousand; that of the allies was not less than ninety thousand.  The loss of the latter was ten thousand in killed and wounded, twenty thousand prisoners, one hundred and eighty-five guns, four hundred caissons, and forty-five standards.
   The historic victory of Blenheim was achieved by Marlborough and Eugene over an enemy superior in numbers and stronger in position.  The loss of the enemy in killed, wounded, and prisoners was thirty-six thousand.  Nor let the incredulous or the timid fail to recognize the terrible power there is in a few brave hearts under a dauntless leader, when they remember how Clive, with three thousand soldiers, in the battle of Plassey, vanquished



and routed seventy thousand men, supported by fifty pieces of cannon.
   Wellington won the battle of Assaye with one thousand five hundred British and five thousand Sepoys, over twenty thousand Mahratta infantry and thirty thousand cavalry.  In the famous siege of Delhi, the British army, numbering only three thousand seven hundred, European and native, after repelling numerous attacks, finally defeated the rebel army, numbering seventy-five thousand men, who had been trained by English officers to European discipline.  In the battle of Corunna, the French, numbering twenty thousand, and numerous light artillery, under Soult, were driven from their position by the British, numbering fourteen thousand, and only nine six-pounders; and the latter reached their ships in safety and sailed for England.  So it is well remembered that General Scott gained the victory of Churubusco with seven thousand men, over an enemy five times as numerous.
   Examples of this kind should be a warning, to all who follow the profession of all arms, of the high standard which history will employ in trying the conduct of those who contest the palm of valor.

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