1.  The profession of arms has, in all countries and in all ages, been the most successful pathway in the highest honors of the State. The victorious chieftain never fails to be rewarded with all the lavishness that a grateful people can bestow; his career is full of grand attractions; besides the  excitement which the valiant heart seeks, mankind  cheers, praises, and supplicates in his behalf, the  young admire and emulate, the old honor and reward, the fair “love him for the dangers he has passed;” his return from the field of victory is a  display of triumphal processions, teeming banners,  waving scarfs, and thrilling music; his rest from his labors is the ripening harvest of his declining years, honors fall thick and fast and are garnered with the other fruits of his labors in the pages of history, to the support and pride of his posterity.

      2. Valor combined with a strong intellect may win laurels that are worn with a bad grace by an unpolished victor; his great deeds only render his rude manners more conspicuous, and he stands before the world a living regret for his own deficiency; how essential, therefore, that every officer should be a gentleman, and cultivate good manners and refinement to adorn the elevated station which his heroism may attain.

     3. The military service is full of hazardous exposures to varied climates, inclement seasons, epidemic and prevalent diseases, and great fatigues that endanger the body more than the enemy's fire and steel: great responsibilities, care of troops, plans and counter-plans, and anxious anticipations, strain the thought and tax the powers of the mind to the utmost; every officer should therefore be physically and mentally sound, with mind well balanced, feelings and passions self-controlled, and a strong and perfect constitutional organization.

     4. The operations of armies call in play every improvement of art, every resource of science, and every invention of genius; a multitude of minds, teeming with infinite experience and every variety of knowledge, must be directed with skill and economy to accomplish the aim and object of war; no inspiration of genius, no gift of nature can do this without acquired knowledge and experience; great and extraordinary intellects may acquire more rapidly and retain a greater amount of these means, yet every leader must possess them in proportion to the command he controls. Every officer should, therefore, be more or less educated and experienced, not necessarily a graduate of a college or academy, for self-educated men are often most practical and successful; but he cannot be an ignorant man and hope to be recognized as a great chief.

     5. Time and labor are the great means within the reach of every one to achieve success in any profession; industry and long service will overcome all difficulties; they yield slowly and tardily at times, but without effort they yield not at all. He should begin service young, and master well each successive grade, and every item of knowledge he accumulates independent of his profession will add lustre to his position and enhance his chance of success.

     6. In short, the officer should be brave, intelligent, and courteous. He should be patient, just, and reliable. He should be ambitious of distinction, industrious in acquiring knowledge of his profession, and conscientious in the performance of his duties. He should possess a high sense of honor, a great pride in his peculiar arm of service, and confidence in himself to perform the tasks assigned to him. He should not trust too much to his good fortune or fancied ability, but rise every chance of success; his plans should be well matured but rapidly and boldly executed; the end and object once fairly in view should never be lost sight of, but pursued persistently in spite of all obstacles; energy and perseverance will compensate for lack of genius and anticipate ill fortune. With these qualifications in his mind and at his command no officer will fail to realize an enviable future.  


     7. For the purpose of administration armies are organized into Companies, Regiments or Battalions, Brigades, Divisions, and Armies or Corps' d' Armee. When occupying or garrisoning a country, they are divided for the same object into Posts, Districts, and Departments. Posts correspond to Battalions or Regiments, Districts to Brigades or Divisions, and a Department commander's authority is equal to that of the commander of a separate army.

     8. The officers upon whom the duties and responsibilities of administration fall are Company, Regimental or Battalion Commanders, and Commanding and General officers. Lieutenants, Field and Staff officers are a class whose duties are subordinate to the administrative class, and the latter are in the main responsible for the acts and duties of the former.

     9. Whilst the duties of the Administrative class cover all the ground of the Assistant class, yet there are duties that are peculiar to each grade. Every officer is supposed to be familiar with all the grades below him, and those who are not are at a disadvantage that should be overcome without delay.

     10. We will begin with the lowest grade and carry the officer through all the successive steps to which he is sure to attain if he really masters each one as he advances. The following are the grades and order in which the duties of each will be treated; the duties of special and general staff officers being deferred for future works:


Commanding Officer.










     11. There are three grades of Lieutenants, viz.: First, Second, and Brevet Second. There is no material difference in the duties they are required to perform; they differ only in rank.

     12. Brevet Second Lieutenants are supernumerary officers commissioned from the graduates of the Military Academy, or from the non-commissioned officers of the Army found worthy of promotion where there are no vacancies. (Acts April 29, 1812, sec. 4, and August 4, 1854, see. 5, Reg. 22.) First and Second Lieutenants belong to the legal organization of companies, whilst Brevet Second Lieutenants are not necessarily attached to the company; in practice they are usually attached to such companies from which one or more of the Lieutenants are absent on permanent staff duty.  Only one supernumerary officer to a company can be allowed under the law.

     13.  Lieutenants commissioned from the graduates of the Military Academy, if they accept, take rank from the 1st of July succeeding their graduation, and according to their class rank.  Non-commissioned officers take rank from the date the vacancy occurred to which they are promoted, if commissioned as full Second Lieutenants. If appointed Brevet Second lieutenants, as in the case of original vacancies, they rank from the date of their acceptance, and their discharges should be made out to take effect on the date at which they enter upon their new grade. Graduates of the Academy are entitled to travelling expenses from the Academy to the stations at which they are ordered to report (Reg. 1116), and non-commissioned officers from the stations at which they receive their promotion.

     14. Citizens appointed to fill vacancies in organized Regiments are usually examined by a Board of officers ordered by the Commanding Officer of the Regiment when they join (Reg. 23). Their rank and pay commence from the date of their acceptance, and they join their stations at their own expense (Reg. 1115).

     15. Officers in the Volunteer Service take rank from their muster in the service of the United States, and are only entitled to pay from that date from the General Government. The law under which they are called out, however, generally regulates that they receive the same pay and allowances as regular troops; the exceptions are usually included in the law. All officers of the Regular Service are senior to officers of the Volunteer Service, of the same grade, without reference to date of commission (Reg. 9).

     16.  It is a trying time to a young officer when he first joins his Regiment; he enters upon a new scene in his life, and is thrown with companions who will try all his qualities, and he will not be fairly domesticated in his Regiment until he has found his level. As a rule he must begin at the foot of the ladder, and work his way up. He may be young, and therefore inexperienced; he may have no fondness for books, and therefore not learned; and he may be deficient in any one or more traits or qualifications, yet hope for success, except courage; he cannot have his courage questioned and expect to succeed as an officer. But with courage he only needs the opportunity to achieve the respect and consideration of his companions and superiors, in spite of all bans and clouds under which he may rest.

     17. As a rule he cannot claim the privilege of indulging in the vices which the older officers too often consider themselves entitled to, without prejudice to his reputation; he must first lay in a stock of virtues, and secure a capital, before he can run any risks with his military fortune; and even the oldest officers cannot indulge in all the vices without becoming bankrupt, in spite of all their former triumphs and successes.

     18. Drinking and gambling are the great vices that every young officer should avoid; even a moderate indulgence will keep his finances always in a state of pressure. He should endeavor, no matter what his habits, at least to measure his expenses by his pay; and, if possible, always have a small equipment fund in reserve for accidents and promotions.

     19. It will be an unfortunate thing if there is found to be an incompatibility among the officers of the same company, for the more they harmonize and agree the better it will be for all parties; on the contrary, if they should be antagonistic to each other, they will themselves be greatly inconvenienced, the company will suffer in many respects, both in discipline and comfort. There is no easy remedy for such a condition of things, transfers are not easily arranged, and a detail for detached service cannot always be obtained, and they must often be borne with until promotion or some other chance effects a change.



     20. The Lieutenant is the assistant or aid of the Captain. When the Captain is present he is under his orders, and in his absence or sickness the duties fall upon the Senior Lieutenant. He should, therefore, be familiar with the Captain's duties, as well as his own, as he is liable at any moment to be required to take command of the Company, and control it in all its details. In addition to his Company duties the following is a list of what he may at any time be called on to perform, viz:

Officer of the Guard.
Officer of Police.
Fatigue and Working Party.
Court Martial, Court of Inquiry or Commission.
Retiring Board.
Board of Survey.
Board of Examination.
Council of Administration
Regimental Staff.
General Staff.
Detached Service.


     21. Graduates of the Military Academy, whilst they have learned the elements of tactics, and have in their education acquired a foundation for future study, will find that there is still much to learn, and that, in many of the practical details, the Lieutenants promoted from the ranks are their superiors.  Civilians will find themselves greatly deceived if they indulge the belief that a knowledge of the tactics of their arm of service is all that is required of them. To feed, clothe, transport, and govern troops is the great labor to be performed, and the drill and training in Companies is only an exercise. Administration is the grand task to be mastered before he has fairly acquired his profession.

     22. Company Duties.-Only those duties that fall to him in his grade of Lieutenant will be spoken of here; as Company Commander he will be guided by what is laid down for the Captain. In his subordinate capacity his duties are very limited, and of rather a monotonous character.

     23. In reality one officer is quite sufficient to attend to all the duties requiring the presence of a commissioned officer, and if the Company would always be sure of an officer competent to do his duty, there would probably be no Lieutenants; but it is to provide against the Company being left without an officer that the law has provided Lieutenants.

     24. The position of Lieutenant is, therefore, more one of probation and instruction, and he may be required by the Captain to attend to all the practical duties incumbent upon the Captain himself. The daily routine is to be present at all the principal roll-calls, drills, and, with mounted troops, stable duty, including watering, feeding, and grooming.

     25. These duties are very similar and monotonous from day to day, but they must be performed as scrupulously as those of any other employee of the Government; it is his day's work, and if he fails to do it, he has not rendered the expected service for his pay, and, where it is habitually neglected, there will be no discipline and no system. If an Officer is lot habitually Present On all occasions when the entire Company is paraded for any purpose whatever, to sustain the First Sergeant, the Company duties are liable to be carelessly and indifferently performed; the neglect of the head is the example for all the subordinates to be negligent; if no officer is present, the First Sergeant is less strict, the men less obedient, and all the duties are soon neglected and carelessly performed,

     26. Generally the Captain will require that one of the Lieutenants be always present for duty with the Company and appear at all roll-calls in front of the Company, attend drills and stable duty, inspect the kitchens at meal-times, the quarters in the morning, and the Company at retreat. The Commanding, officer of the Post or Regiment may, however, require that all the Company officers be present at roll-calls and drills, unless specially excused, and thus the matter is no longer discretionary with the Captain.

     27. To Perform his duty well at drill the Lieutenant must be familiar with tactics from the "School of the Soldier," through the "School of the Company," and "School of the Battalion." He should know these as well as he can learn them from the book, and under a Captain who explains the movements well he will have no difficulty in the practical application. He may, however, be thrown entirely upon his own resources, without any assistance, and required to instruct where he expected to be instructed.

     28. Under such circumstances the system of beginning at the beginning of the book, and taking one or more lessons of the text for practical exercise each day is the best; the book is gone through with, and the subject learned without any very great effort, and a few weeks suffice to go through the whole subject. The practice is progressive, and followed out as laid down in the text it becomes an easy task.

     29. Inspection of the Company under arms is usually performed in the evening previous to marching on parade, and is limited to an examination of the arms and accoutrements.  On Sunday mornings the Inspection is generally more complete, and extends to the knapsack, clothing, bedding, bunks, quarters, kitchen, etc.

     30. The form of Inspection, laid down in Art. XXX, Gen. Reg., or a modification of it, according to the arm of service, and the attending circumstances, is the custom. Modifications are necessary; no particular plan can he adhered to exclusively; for this service in the field in time of war is performed entirely with reference to usefulness and efficiency, and in time of peace, in garrison, more attention is devoted to ornament and display. 

     31. A daily inspection of quarters is usually made in the morning, in garrison, by a Lieutenant, to see that the rooms have been swept out, the beds and blankets folded, that everything is in its place, that the kitchen and messing is properly conducted.  In camp in the field the inspection of tents and Company grounds is also made at a specific hour in the day, when the men are expected to have everything in order, the grounds swept clean, the bedding and blankets properly folded, and knapsacks and accoutrements in place. At Retreat,  whether in the field or in garrison, is the usual time for a casual inspection of arms; and in time of war the men should always fall in at Tattoo roll-call with their arms and equipments, in order that they may know where they are when they lie down, and know where to look for them if suddenly called out before  the next dawn.

     32.  Stable duty should always be attended by a commissioned officer, in the Artillery and Cavalry, and should be, in spite of its monotony, rigorously performed.  One hour, morning  and evening, should be occupied at this duty, and the men should be kept employed during this time, grooming the horses, cleaning the stables, and feeding.  Before the Company is dismissed, each horse and stall should be inspected.  A commissioned officer should always accompany the horses to water, and prevent the rapid riding that men are prone to indulge in, which is more injurious at this time than at any other.

     33. The Captain may require the Lieutenant to assist him in making out the various papers required in the Company. He generally requires him to be present at the issues of clothing, and to witness the signatures of the men on the receipt-roll; also at the pay-table he may be required to attend and witness the signatures of the men on the pay-roll.

    34. The Company duties of the commissioned officer are set forth more in what is laid down for Captains, from which the Lieutenant will gather a better idea of his relation to the Company, and how the various duties should be performed. It is difficult to explain what the authority of a Lieutenant over the men in the Company is when the Company Commander is present.

     35. It can only be laid down in general terms that a subaltern cannot make any material changes, inflict any punishment, detach any of the men, or put them on duty, or relieve them without the consent or knowledge of the Commander of the Company. It is always best that there should be a clear understanding between the Captain and his subalterns as to how far the former will sustain the latter. Some Captains prefer to direct all matters relative to the Company themselves, others leave more or less of the duty to the care and direction of their subordinates.

     36.  On Guard - Guard duty is of two kinds, viz.: Police Guard and Grand Guard. The Police Guard is for the purpose of instruction and discipline, to preserve the order in the camp, and to protect the public property.  It is usually posted in the immediate vicinity of the camp or garrison, and is maintained and kept up in every military command at all times (Reg. 573).

     37. Grand Guards are only kept up in time of war, and are thrown out in the direction of the enemy, to give notice of his approach and resist his advance, so as to give the main force time to prepare for battle.  It is posted more or less distant from the camp, according to the strength of the command, the nature of the country, and the proximity of the enemy.

       38.  The Police Guard, known under the various names of Camp Guard, Post Guard, &c., finds its model in the guard of a Regiment placed around the camp, being a regular chain of sentinels extending entirely around the camp, with a Guard-house for the rendezvous for the guard, with one or two Lieutenants, one or two Sergeants, three Corporals, and about 40 Privates comprising the guard.  Circumstances may require modifications  as to the strength, composition, and position of the Police Guard, but the same regulations govern the duties, the same general principles are followed when modifications are found necessary.

     39.  The Roster for Guard is kept by the Adjutant.  The detail for Officer of the Day and Officer of the Guard is published at Retreat Parade, and the officer detailed usually also receives his detail on the day previous, and should the officer be entitled to be excused from the duty he should notify the Adjutant in time for the detail to be notified to the next officer. The tour is for twenty-four hours.

     40. When the call for guard-mounting sounds, the officer detailed repairs to the ground usually used for parade purposes, equipped with sword and sash, and in fatigue uniform or full dress, according as the guard is dressed. By the time the guard is formed he must be on the ground, and at the command 'front" by the Adjutant, he takes post twelve paces in front of the guard with drawn sword. If there be more than one officer of the guard, they take post according to rank, the senior officer being on the right. (Reg. 377.)

     41. The ceremony of Inspection is then conducted as prescribed in Reg., Par. 378; and in the following paragraph is explained the rest of the ceremony of Guard Mounting as conducted under the direction of the Adjutant and Officer of the Day, and how the guard is marched off to its post. The manner in which the officer of the old guard receives the new guard is also laid down; it is only necessary to caution the new officer of the guard to satisfy himself that the property belonging to the guard-house is all on hand, that the prisoners borne on the Guard Report are all present, and that he gets a correct idea of existing orders for the discharge of his duty.

     42.  The manner of distributing the Police Guard is given in Reg., Par. 573, is rarely followed now-a-days.  The location of the guard in the centre of the camp is dispensed with, and the entire guard is placed at the point stated for the advance post, Reg., Par. 574; the prisoners are kept there, and the headquarters of the guard are there during the tour.  A tent or other habitation for the guard, and a separate place for the prisoners, constitutes the “Guardhouse.”

     43.  It is presumed that every officer has a copy of the regulations, and therefore deemed sufficient to refer to the paragraphs applicable.  The manner in which the old guard receives the new and is marched off and dismissed, is given in Par. 386 to 397.  They include the manner of organizing the Reliefs and posting the sentinels, duties that properly belong to the non-commissioned officers of the guard, whose duties are detailed in “Customs of Service for Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers,” with which the officer of guard should also be familiar, otherwise he cannot supervise the performance of the duties.

     44.  He should also be familiar with the details of the sentinels’ duties, in order that he may know that the instruction of the men, which is usually performed by the Corporals and Sergeants of the Guard, is properly attended to.  The system laid down in "Customs of Service for Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers," par. 75 to 97, is the best. He should ascertain by personal inspection of the Reliefs before they are posted and afterwards, that the men are familiar with their duties.

     45. The number of posts for sentinels vary with each camp and garrison, and the location of the guard-house is generally controlled by the point at which the main entrance to the camp or garrison is located, in order to control the ingress and egress of all parties. Page 77, Reg., shows the arrangement of camp and the lines on which the sentinels are usually posted.

     46. Art. XXXIII, and Par. 573 to 592, contain nearly all the Regulations governing the arrangement and duties of the guard, the posting and instruction of the sentinels. They lack system and detail, and have been deviated from to some extent by custom, and therefore deserve the closest attention to enable officers to obtain a correct knowledge of their duties as officers of the guard.

     47. The Officer of the Guard is not permitted to leave his guard during his tour, except to visit the sentinels, or on other duty connected with his post (Reg. 408). He is not permitted to take off his accoutrements or clothing during his tour (Reg. 409) , No regulation or law prohibits the officer of the guard from sleeping during his tour of guard, yet custom requires that he shall not be found asleep by any superior during this time, and officers have often been arraigned before courts martial on this charge. A regulation is required by which the responsibility of keeping awake is divided between the Officer of the Guard and the sergeant; as the sentinels are permitted to sleep the officers should be allowed a share of rest also. In practice the officer of the guard does sleep a portion of the night, but takes good care that he is not caught asleep.  But this is only a recognized evasion, it would be better if it were made a regulation.

     48. The important posts are No. 1, which is always the sentinel in front of the guard-house; the sentinels over the Quartermaster and Commissary stores; the color sentinels at the color line, the sentinel in front of the Commanding Officer's quarters, and the sentinel (one or more) over the prisoners when sent out to work, and at other times. The special duties of each of these sentinels are different and require separate instructions.

     49. The charge of the prisoners is a responsibility of some importance even in a Regiment, and a sergeant called a “Provost Sergeant” is often detailed to take charge of the prisoners during working hours, to keep the record of their names, and the kind and duration of their several punishments.

     50. The Officer of the Guard, however, is responsible for the security of the prisoners, as that duty is entrusted to him and his Guard. He receives the prisoners as they are confined, sees that the sergeant of the Guard takes down the names, by whose order confined, and the date. An abstract of the orders inflicting punishments is furnished him, and he must keep a record of them in order that they may be entered on the List of Prisoners that accompanies the Guard Report daily; he must in all cases wherein the punishment is to be inflicted under the direction of the Guard, see that the sentences are duly executed, and that his successors are duly instructed in all cases where punishments are continued for a length of time from day to day.

     51. It is best to take down in writing all orders and instructions, and transmit them in that way to the next Officer of the Guard, in order that they may be handed down without omissions or errors. Verbal orders are often given that should be transmitted, and unless recorded are liable to be forgotten.

     52. Vigilance on the part of the Officer of the Guard, should be directed particularly to seeing that the non-commissioned officers do their duty; that the Corporals visit their reliefs frequently, and instruct the sentinels; that the sentinels walk their posts diligently, and he should visit them repeatedly during the day and night, and ascertain by personal examination whether the sentinels know their duties. He should enforce cleanliness and order in the Guard, and proper military deportment, nor allow any games or other pursuits that would take away from the proper dignity of a Guard.

     53. The manner in which the Guard duty is performed is a very good criterion of the discipline and military character of a Regiment. Properly performed it is a source of instruction, and a means of preserving the tone and spirit of the command.  Punctuality and precision in the performance of all the compliments required of Guards are indications of the military character of the command to which the Guard belongs, and if all the duties of the Police Guard are properly performed, they may be relied on for proper vigilance in Advanced Guards and Picket duty.

     54. The Guard is turned out and paraded and inspected at Reveille, Retreat, and Tattoo, and the roll called. It is also required to turn out at the beating of the "long Roll," or the sounding of "to horse," or the cry of 'fire." or any alarm or disturbance. "To turn out the Guard, means to parade it under arms.

     55. As a matter of compliment the Guard is turned out whenever a large body of troops approaches (Reg. 422), also on the approach of the officer of the day (Reg. 426), the Commanding Officer and all General Officers (Reg, 242 and 431), the President and Vice-President, the members of the Cabinet, Chief Justice, President of the Senate, and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States (Reg. 244), and American and foreign ministers (Reg. 246); foreign military and naval officers may be received with the same compliments as our own according to their rank. Officers of the Navy and Marines and officers of other Regiments are to be received according to rank, the same as the officers of the Command to which the Guard belongs (Reg. 253).

     56. When the Guard is turned out as a compliment, arms are usually presented, unless the officer, for whom the Guard has turned out, passes to the rear of the Guard, in which case it is only required to stand at attention (Reg. 248). The Guard usually falls in immediately in front of the Guard House, and behind the line of arms when stacked; the officer of the Guard requires them to take arms, and awaits at shouldered arms the approach of the officer, and when he has arrived near the Guard, or is passing its front, or when he reaches No. I sentinel's beat, he causes the Guard to "present arms."  The officer of the Guard may take post either in front of the centre of the Guard or on the right in the front rank.

     57. Sentinels take orders from the officers and non-commissioned officers of their Guard, the officer of the day, and the Commanding Officer (Reg. 413). The Commanding Officer, in this connection, means the Commander of the Regiment or Detachment to which the Guard belongs. It also means the Brigade, Division, Corps, or Army Commander. It is clear that any one of these officers has the authority to give orders, as the Guard is a portion of his command; a Commander of another Brigade, Division or Corps cannot give orders where the Guard is not a portion of his command. It follows, also, that no officers or non-commissioned officers, who can give orders to sentinels, can be stopped or detained by a sentinel after he has been informed as to the identity of the party, either by night or by day.

     58. It also follows that all these officers are exceptions to such orders as may be given of a general prohibitory character. It must be clear that no subordinate can give orders that may not be countermanded by his superior in the same command. It is also evident that Commanders of other Regiments, Brigades, Divisions, etc., cannot give orders to Guards that are not within their own commands. All General Officers, however, usually pass all guards and sentinels without question or detention.

     59. Whilst sentinels on posts can be instructed to stop commissioned officers, and officers are required to respect the orders given to sentinels posted at certain points for specific purposes, it is manifestly wrong to entrust non-commissioned officers or privates on patrol with the power to stop officers, and interrogate them as to their right to be absent from their commands. Such duty should be entrusted to a commissioned officer, who should be armed with a copy of his orders fully authenticated, which any superior officer may demand to see before submitting to the officer's interrogations.

     60. The patrols established in cities, on railways and steamboats for the examination of passes, furloughs, leaves of absence, orders, etc., should be directed by the highest available authority, so as to include and make all subordinate, whom it is intended to affect. The duty should be entrusted to a commissioned officer so far as officers are concerned; should be published in orders, and made public generally, so that officers may always be provided with their authority, and save themselves much inconvenience.

     61. All Police Guards, whether Cavalry, Artillery, or Infantry, are paraded and do duty on foot, and the same general principles govern throughout. Detached Guards, for the protection of storehouses, magazines, depots, etc., all derive their rule of action from the General Regulations laid down for Police Guards. Minor matters, and all points of issue yield to the accomplishment of the special duty of the Guard. Red-tape, orders and regulations are made to facilitate duty, not retard it.

     62. When on the march the practice with reference to guards varies according to circumstances. In times of peace, marching through the country, the guard is mounted in the evening; it remains in camp in the morning until everything has moved off, and then brings up the rear. It is the duty of the Officer of the Guard to see that nothing is left behind, that no stragglers loiter behind without authority. All prisoners are under his charge and march with the guard.

     63. In time of war, Police Guards are almost entirely dispensed with, and the guard duty is confined almost entirely to Advanced or Grand Guard duty for the purpose of watching the enemy. The Police Guard, if any, is small. The Guard is usually relieved and men join their companies, except a sufficient number to guard the prisoners. Prisoners however are, in time of war, generally confided to a Provost Guard.

     64. On the march the Police Guard should always be marched on in time to enable the guards and sentinels to take their posts before night. The Commanding Officer generally, at the commencement of a campaign or expedition, issues orders regulating the order of march, and directs the strength of the guards, the time of marching on and off, and place in column, which may vary from day to day according to directions.

     65. Escorts and Guards to General Officers is a kind of guard duty that comes within the province of a Lieutenant to know. Escorts of Honor, and the manner of receiving and attending the official is given in Reg., Par. 271 to 274.

     66. Guards for General Officers are usually such small force of Infantry or Cavalry, or both, as may be necessary to furnish a guard to protect Headquarters, supplies, trains, etc., to supply details for police and fatigue duties about Headquarters, and escorts to the General when he visits the lines, camps, etc., or to reconnoitre the enemy's positions. Ordinarily a General's escort marches in rear of his Staff. In the vicinity of the enemy whenever the General requires it, the escort is disposed as provided for patrols, the General and his Staff riding at the head of the main body of the escort. A similar disposition is made when an escort is permitted to a Staff officer on duty in the vicinity of the enemy.

     67. Headquarters Guards and Escorts do not turn out for Generals junior to the General to whom the guard or escort belongs; they turn out only to his superiors (Reg. 242). The Reg. 243 provides that for Commanding Officers of less grade than a General their guards present arms but once during the day when turned out, at other times they turn out at shouldered arms.

     68. Grand Guards.-The Grand Guard is a force thrown out in the direction of the enemy to prevent surprise, to give notice of his approach, and to delay his advance, and give the main body time to prepare for battle, or make good its retreat. It is too often called an Advanced Guard, which should only be applied to a force thrown out to the front, when the main body is moving, to give notice of the, vicinity of the enemy, to conceal the preparations for battle, and cover offensive movements. It becomes a Rear Guard when it is placed in the rear, either to delay pursuit, to cover the retreat, or bring up the fragments of the column, and guard against sudden attack.

     69. Grand Guard duty has by practice, in our service, been called picket duty and the outer sentinels, pickets; and the guard that furnished these sentinels the Picket Guard. These terms have been used so variously that some illustration is necessary to a proper understanding of them. 


 Arrangement and nomenclature of Grand Guards according to Mahan.
(See Mahan’s Outposts.)



 Arrangement and nomenclature according to Dufour and Duparcq.
(See Strategy and Tactics – Dufour; Military Art and History – Duparcq.)


Arrangement and nomenclature of the English and Prussian Service.
(See Decker, Arentschild and Witzleben.)


     73.  There are still other variations of the terms and dispositions.  In the regulations Picket means a supernumerary Grand Guard that remains in camp and is only called out for an emergency, and is then marched to the point required (Reg. 593).  In the English service this guard is called the “in-lying picket;” the Grand Guard that is on duty, in contradistinction, is called the “out-lying picket.”  In fact, every author that has written on the subject of Out-Post and Advanced Guard duty, has given us a different system of names and different arrangement of the forces.  This is owing, perhaps, principally to the fact that nearly every war has had its own system, the result of the kind of troops and arms and the nature of the country in which the war has been carried on.

     74. The following diagram and extracts from General Orders No. 69, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, February 25th 1862, is another system of names and arrangement of the out-posts that has grown into use in our service.


 Grand Guard Duty as required by General Orders
No. 69, 1862, Headquarters Army of the Potomac


In Camp – Each Brigade will furnish daily the guard for its own front, connecting with the guards of the Brigades on its right and left.  Each guard will be under the direction of a Field Officer of the Day, to be detailed at Brigade Headquarters.  Senior Captains may be added to the roster of field officers for field officers of the day, when necessity requires.

The guards of each division will be under the direction of a General Officer of the Day, who shall receive his orders directly from the Division Commander. Colonels will be added to the roster of General Officers for this duty. Brigade Commanders may be excused from serving on this detail. Each guard shall consist of a line of sentinels called PICKETS, of a line of SUPPORTS, from which the sentinels are furnished for the front of the Brigade, and of a RESERVE, posted in the following manner: The Reserve will occupy a commanding position, and be stationed about a mile or a mile and a half in front of the main body of the Brigade.

The Supports, two or more, as the nature of the ground and the length of the lines may require, will be thrown about one mile further to the front. They will be placed in such positions as easily to communicate with each other and with the Reserve, and as near the avenues of approach from the front as practicable. From these Supports the line of Pickets is thrown out about two hundred yards to the front. As, upon the position of this line, and the manner in which the Pickets perform their duty, the safety of the entire Army depends, no pains must be spared to ensure their being properly posted and instructed in their duties; and the utmost vigilance must be observed to enforce a proper performance of them.

The line will be formed by posting groups of three men each; these groups to be not more than 150 yards apart, and much closer when the nature of the ground or the attitude of the enemy requires. These groups will keep up constant communication with each other; which will be readily accomplished by one man of each group walking half way to the group on his left, another half way to the group on his right; thus always leaving one of the three at the original station, None of the men stationed on this line will be allowed to sit or lie down on their post, nor will they quit their arms, or relax the vigilance of faithful sentinels by day or night. These Pickets will be relieved every two hours, and being furnished by the Supports, the latter will be divided into three reliefs for this purpose. The Supports will be relieved from the Reserve every six hours.

The Reserve will also furnish a line of sentinels to communicate with the Supports, as well as a line communicating with the Headquarters of the Brigade. The sentinels on these lines will be posted within easy call of each other, so that intelligence may be passed from the Pickets to the Camp with the utmost celerity. They are to be relieved every two hours, and while on post must keep constantly on the alert, never being allowed to sit or lie down.

The duties of the Pickets are to keep a vigilant watch over the country in front, and over the movements of the enemy, if in sight; to prevent all unauthorized persons from passing in or out of the lines, and to arrest all suspicious individuals.  In case of an attack, they will act as a line of skirmishers, and hold their ground to the last moment. If forced to retire, they will slowly close their intervals, and fall back upon their Supports.

The Supports, being placed in strong positions, will hold themselves in readiness to receive the Pickets and repel an attack, retiring in good order upon the Reserve, when unable any longer to hold their ground.

One relief of the Supports will be allowed to sleep. One must constantly be on the alert. One commissioned officer must also be up and awake at all hours.

No fires will be allowed on the line of the Supports, or outside the line of Reserves. Any fires found burning will be promptly extinguished.

The Reserve, stationed in a strong position, and one which commands, as far as practicable, all approaches to the camp, shall be of sufficient strength to check the advance of the enemy, thus affording the main body of the Army ample time to form and prepare for attack. It will give a rallying point for the Pickets and their Supports, if driven in, and, being reinforced by them, will hold its ground until ordered by Division Commander to retire. At least one commissioned officer and one-third of the men of the Reserve must be on the alert at all hours. Fires may be built on this line in such places as are screened from the view in front by the nature of the ground.

The position of the Reserve should be strengthened by the use of all such defenses as the country affords. When near the enemy, abattis should be constructed whenever practicable.

The Reserve shall, in addition to the lines of sentinels already mentioned, send out patrols between the lines and a short distance to the front of the line of Pickets, to examine such portions of the country as are not fully in view of the Pickets.

A detachment of Cavalry should be attached to each Reserve, which shall send several mounted men to remain with each of the Supports, to act as messengers in case of necessity. These men shall be relieved every six hours, and while on duty with the Support shall keep their horses saddled and bridled. The detachment with the Reserve shall keep one half of their horses saddled and bridled, prepared to mount at the command. This Cavalry is to be used for mounted patrols, and such other duty, in connection with the guard, as the Field officer of the Day may direct.

 Field Artillery may sometimes be used to strengthen the position of the Reserves, whenever the nature of the ground gives it an effective range.  In all cases, when Artillery forms a portion of the guard, it will be constantly in readiness for immediate use. The horses will never be unhitched, and their drivers will remain within reach of them.

As a general rule, the Advanced Guard will consist of about one-tenth of the effective strength of the command. But this, of course, varies with circumstances. The Reserve (with the sentinels and patrols it furnishes) will comprise two-thirds of the entire guard. The other third being subdivided for the Supports and their Pickets.

The positions of Pickets, Supports, and Reserves, will be designated by the Field officer of the Day for each Brigade, under the supervision and control of the General Officer of the Day for the Division.

Each Commander of a Division will have an understanding with the commander on his right and left as to where they are to unite with the adjoining Guards.

On arriving at the position to be occupied by the Reserve, the Commander of the Guard will advance with and station the Supports and point out the position of the line of Pickets. The Commanders of the Supports will, accompanied by the non-commissioned officers of the reliefs, post the Pickets of the first relief, and explain to them their duties. They will be careful to observe that the whole ground is covered, and that perfect connection is made with the lines on their right and left. After the Pickets are posted, the Commander of the Guard himself will visit them, see that they understand their duties and occupy proper positions, and connect with the lines to the right and left. Should the position of the Pickets be changed, the order must pass through the Commander of the Support to which they belong. The Commander of the Guard will make himself thoroughly acquainted with the ground which his Guard occupies, with the approaches and communications. He will keep up constant communication from front to rear, and from right to left, by means of lines of sentinels and patrols. In case of alarm, he will promptly investigate the cause, and be careful not to exaggerate the danger. Should the enemy advance, he will, by personal observation, endeavor to discover whether they are in force, and beware of causing unnecessary alarm. He will communicate all important intelligence to the Field Officer of the Day, who will report the same to the General Officer of the Day, and, if the case be urgent, directly to Division and Brigade Headquarters. He will see that all the duties of his Guard are performed in a prompt and soldierly manner, and enforce the strictest discipline.

The Field Officer of the Day will visit the Reserves, Supports, and Pickets, soon after they are posted, and at least once during the night. He will see that they are in proper positions, and connect through the whole line of his Brigade, and with the Pickets of the Brigades on the right and left, and that they understand and perform their duties. He will study the nature of the ground, and prepare himself to make a vigorous defense in case his Pickets are attacked or driven in. He will communicate his dispositions and arrangements to the General Officer of the Day and his Brigade Commander, and keep them informed of everything of importance which may transpire.

The line of Pickets should be located with a view to the most extensive observation possible of the country in front. To secure this, the line during the day should pass over the highest points, and in front of such ground as is covered by timber or brushwood. The sentinels should be instructed to observe carefully the nature of the ground, and to select such places of protection for themselves as their post will afford, to occupy in case the enemy appears within range. At nightfall the line should be drawn somewhat closer to the Supports, and should pass through the lower ground, and just within the front of any timber or brush. By this means the intervals are diminished and the line strengthened; and while the Pickets are themselves secured from sight, the enemy cannot approach without being seen distinctly. Patrols will be sent frequently from the Reserve along the lines, and all directions within the Pickets. They will not pass beyond the line of Pickets at night, unless especially ordered by the General or Field Officer of the Day.

All sentinels of Advanced Guards must be given the countersign before sunset, and commence challenging immediately thereafter.

At night, care and vigilance must be redoubled by officers and men of the Guard. Communications between the Reserves, Supports, and Pickets must be constant; and all circumstances out of the ordinary routine must be at once reported to the Field Officer of the Day, who will report everything of special importance to the General Officer of the Day. Too much care cannot be urged upon all concerned to avoid creating false alarms.

The unnecessary discharge of fire-arms will be severely punished.


     75. The unfortunate confusion of terms throws great difficulty in the way to the young officer of learning Grand Guard duty, particularly if he has not the opportunity of actual service, and has only books to depend upon. But in all services and under all names it has the same object, and is by far the most important duty that the young officer has to perform. He is here thrown, to a certain extent, upon his own resources. Whatever happens on the tour gives an opportunity for the display of his personal fitness for an officer.

     76. In the English and Prussian service the Grand Guard duty is generally intended to consist of Cavalry, with what they call the picket, composed of Infantry. Properly, however, Grand Guard duty is the whole subject of protecting the position of a large body of troops when at rest in times of war, and may be composed of all arms and arranged in a great variety of ways, according to circumstances. (See diagram of the Grand Guard duty in the Army of the James.)

     77. Annexed is a diagram showing how the Grand Guard was posted to protect the right flank of the Army of the James in front of Richmond, in December, 1864. The intrenchment served the purpose of the main armies. The Grand Guard, therefore, consisted only of a line of Sentinels and a line of Supports. The Guard was all Infantry immediately in front of the enemy, but on the right flank along the Darbytown road was all Cavalry except the chain of sentinels immediately in front of the works:



     78.  The usual post that falls to a Lieutenant on Grand Guard duty is the charge of one or more Supports from which the outer sentinels are drawn.  His first duty is to receive and understand his orders, and if not already in writing, he should write them out at the first opportunity. He should go round with the first relief and learn all the posts and positions of the sentinels, and know the orders of each that is under his control, and see that there is a connection made on the right and left with the other portions of the Grand Guard.

     79. He should inform himself thoroughly about his position, and get all the information of the enemy and the country in his immediate front. He should learn the names of places, houses, farms, streams, etc., in his vicinity; learn all he can from the inhabitants about the roads leading to his position, and all other information they are able or willing to give. He should arrange in his own mind and anticipate probabilities, as to what he will do if the enemy appear, remembering that he is not to retire before an equal or inferior force, and only when it is greatly superior, unless positive orders to the contrary are given; and of the existence of such a superior force there must be no doubt; nothing more unfortunate can happen to a subaltern than the subsequent discovery that he fell back from his position unnecessarily; his reputation as an officer hangs on the integrity of his report. At the same time he must not remain too long and thereby endanger his capture by a superior force.

     80. He should thoroughly inform himself of the ground in his rear, fix upon the means and routes of communication with his supports. He should neglect no means of defense for retarding the enemy, by cutting down trees, barricading the roads, taking up the planks of bridges, and every other means that will prevent the enemy from closing suddenly upon his position in superior numbers and capturing his party.

     81. A system of Signals should be agreed upon for day and night by which the line of outer sentinels can warn the supports and other posts in the rear with as little delay as possible; these signals should be very few and very plain, so as not to be mistaken. Each officer can make his own signals that will answer the purpose, which may be conveyed in various ways, such as a flag hastily made with a handkerchief, by the various modes of walking about or running, by certain attitudes and positions of the body, by smoke, by the use of small mirrors that soldiers generally carry, and many other means that will suggest themselves. At night fire is used in a variety of ways. The report of firearms should always indicate an attack.

     82. An officer on Grand Guard duty should always be provided with writing materials for the purpose of sending communications to the rear, which should always be plainly and concisely written. He should have a Memorandum Book, in which to enter items to be remembered, in case he may be required to make a report of his tour of duty. He should have a field-glass and a map of the country, and should make a map of his own position, for his own improvement and reference.

     83. It is as well to say it here that map-making is an essential qualification in an officer, and he should be constantly practising it; it produces the habit of observing where you are going, and sharpens the faculty of locality, which, by the way, is nothing more than keeping one's eyes open to where he is going. An officer should so habituate his observation that he may be able to tell clearly where he has been, and to go back again if necessary.

     84. But the most important item is the posting and instruction of the sentinels. The main duty is to watch the enemy, and give notice of his approach. The sentinels should, therefore, be posted where they can see the enemy as he approaches; the next advantageous position is where the enemy cannot see the sentinel. The next consideration is to be where he can send intelligence to the rear with the greatest facility, the greatest perfection of all these points is desirable.

     85. Then, having posted the sentinel, it is important that he should understand clearly and distinctly what he is there for, and what he is to do. These instructions should be plain and simple as possible. They are limited usually to watching a certain section in his front, to observe what is transpiring there, and then as to how he shall make his observations known to the rear, whether by signal or by courier; he should be particularly instructed not to retire without firing his piece when the enemy appears suddenly and in force, so that he may warn the sentinels on his right and left, as well

     86. He should be instructed concerning Flags of Truce (Reg. 639), the reception of deserters (Reg. 641), and the orders concerning parties or individuals passing to the front. The sentinels should be visited frequently during his tour by the officer, as it gives encouragement to the timid, and keeps himself informed of the condition of the line.

     87. The men should be instructed that in retiring they should approach the supports on the flanks, so as to uncover the front, so that the support may command the enemy as they pursue the retiring sentinel; and the supports, when they retire, should approach the Reserves in the same manner.

     88. PATROLS properly belong to Grand Guards, although they may be specially detailed for the duty, but, as a rule, they consist of small parties of soldiers, varying from two to thirty men, selected from the Grand Guard, to make short reconnoisances or scouts, and procure information. A patrol is a detachment, but always a small one, while Detachments may be either small or large bodies of troops.

     89 Patrols for reconnoitering within and in the vicinity of the line of sentinels consist usually of three or four men, and are sent out for the purpose of detecting scouts of the enemy, and for keeping the sentinels on the alert. The general principle that is observed in marching any body of troops, holds good in patrols; that is, there should always be an advance and rear Guard, and if there are but two men, one is the advance guard and the other the rear guard.  In the vicinity of the enemy, and when not following a road, the patrol marches in a manner that may be called line of battle, as indicated in the figures below.


     90.  The distance apart of the men thrown out from the main body of the patrol will depend upon the nature of the ground; they should always be within hailing distance or sight.  In an open, comparatively level country, like the western prairies, the men could be several hundred yards apart, whilst in a thick wooded country they should necessarily be much closer.  In a country that can only be travelled on the roads, the patrol is disposed on the road as follows:


     91.  The distance between each part of the patrol should never be beyond sight except such as the inequalities of the road may produce for a few moments at a time; where the road passes through an open country flankers may be thrown out, in which the order of march approximates the previous disposition.  The main object in the march of a Patrol is so to conduct it that it will get the first sight of the enemy, and that no part of it can be surprised and captured without knowledge of the adjoining subdivision.

     92.  Every man of the Patrol should be cautioned and directed to use his eyes; they should be made to understand that everything depends upon getting first sight of the enemy.  Fifteen to thirty men all using their eyes industriously cannot fail to discover everything hostile within the range of vision.

     93.  Patrols may consist either of Infantry or Cavalry; the object and the disposition remains the same.  In a broken or difficult country Infantry should be used, but Cavalry is generally used where it can be, and even with Infantry a few horsemen should accompany the Patrol to carry intelligence to the rear.

     94. The Patrol is sent out for the purpose of seeing the enemy, not to fight him, and encounters are therefore to be avoided, and even when the enemy is discovered in inferior numbers he is not to be attacked unless the capture of a prisoner or two would secure the desired information for which the patrol had been sent. Even then the failure of such an attempt might produce the total failure of the object for which the patrol had been sent out.

     95. The principal object in sending out patrols is usually to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy, and to find out his intended movements; also to ascertain the distance he is from the lines, and what is the character of the intermediate country.

     96. Every precaution is, therefore, taken to march the Patrol with as much secrecy as possible. If the enemy is discovered in small force, a Patrol perhaps, he should be avoided either by concealment or changing the direction until he has passed.

     97. If, after all precaution, the patrol is nevertheless discovered, then the officer must make the best of it; if it is still possible to accomplish the object for which the patrol was sent out, he should not give up, but push on; the officer must decide at once how he will act; it may be best to feign a retreat, and fall back until the pursuit is abandoned, and then try again; or, if his force will warrant it, to attack and disperse the enemy's patrol, and endeavor in the route to press on; usually, however, the only thing that it is advisable to do, is to attack the force and get what prisoners it is possible, and return.

     98. It is in the selection of the men composing the Patrol, and their fitness for the duty, that the success of it will mainly depend. Particularly the men in advance must be specially selected, quick sighted, active, and brave men, who know how to take advantage of the inequalities of the ground and objects in advance, to approach the enemy unseen, and who will make no mistakes in what they see. It is too often the case that an exaggerated report defeats further investigation, that would have discovered the practicability of continuing on.

     99. It is the officer in charge, however, who is the soul of the party; if he is not fond of such duty, and has not an aptitude for it, the patrol will lack the essential elements of success. He will, if he is zealous, provide himself with a map of his proposed route, a compass, field-glass, or telescope, such guides as it is possible to obtain, and all the information possible before starting. In order that he may be able to give an intelligent account of where he has been, he should provide himself with paper, prepared for taking notes of his route.

     100. Various methods are recommended for this purpose, and one is laid down in Regulations (page 100). The simplest is to take ordinary writing paper, if none prepared for the purpose is to be had, and rule it into squares by a system of parallel lines perpendicular to the lines already on the paper. These squares can be assumed as a quarter, half, or mile square, as may be most desirable, then assuming the top of the sheet to be always north, and knowing the general directions of the route, it is easy to select the point on the paper where you start from according as you are to travel, north, south, east, or west.

     101. The sketch of the roads north of Deep Bottom was made by riding out from the entrenchments at Deep Bottom to the Kingsland road, along the Kingsland road to its intersection with the Newmarket road, then turning to the left up the Newmarket road to Signal Hill, there a farm road led across to the Darbytown road, then returning by the last road by Fussel's Mill to the Newmarket road and back to Deep Bottom. The distance travelled, and the sketch required about three hours. There are no actual measurements, everything is estimated, but it serves as an excellent aid to the memory in remembering the various points, and the sketch together with the verbal description of the various points which the officer would be able to give, might prove of great service at a critical moment. The dotted lines are conjecture, the other parts are put in by actual observation from different points in the roads. This qualification in an officer is invaluable, and should be practised constantly as an exercise; it can be carried to a great state of perfection by consulting books devoted to the subject. 


     102. It would be impossible to anticipate all the conditions that may exist, and offer in a work like this suggestions for the emergency. The natural capacity of the officer for the duty will, especially if he has studied the subject, and takes an interest in it, suggest the means best suited to the end in each individual case. The distance to be travelled, the nature of the country to be passed over, the time of day, and the object to be attained, together with the kind of troops to be used, the number and character of their arms, and many other considerations must be considered on such duty, and everything should be provided for and anticipated.

     103. If the Patrol is passing through a section where the enemy would probably expect it, the advance should be cautiously made, and all kinds of cover should first be examined before the patrol passes on. When the Patrol reaches ground where the enemy would hardly expect it, then the Patrol can move more rapidly, and with less caution, and in fact the rapidity of the march is the safety of the patrol, as before dispositions can be made to receive it, it will have passed the dangerous points where it would be interrupted.

     104. The officer must set the example, and be ready to face any danger that may assail them, and capable of suffering any fatigue or exposure with the men. When the patrol has arrived in the vicinity of the enemy the main force should be kept back concealed, and the officer advance with one or two men, and endeavor to get sight of the enemy's position, and to ascertain his strength and condition. He should, whenever it is possible, look for himself, and not trust it to any of the men. Sometimes it is necessary to make a dash at the enemy's line to capture some of his pickets, or, at least, to drive them in and create an alarm, by which he will be made to display his force. The officer should always be with the advance in these affairs, in order that he may see for himself whatever is to be seen.

     105. Night marches of Patrols require to be conducted with still greater precautions than in the day-time. The men are kept within speaking distance of each other; signals are agreed upon, in case of separation, in order that the men may recognize each other in the night. The most safe course to pursue is to procure a countryman, and by bribery or threat, if good-will fails, induce him to show the way as far as he is familiar with the country, and then procure another in the same way. The Guides furnished seldom know enough to answer all the purposes of such an expedition.

     106. When an officer returns from such a reconnaissance he must be able to answer all questions, as to the kind of a road passed over, the number and nature of the streams crossed, the character of the banks and bed, and whether passable for all kinds of troops or not. The number and character of the bridges, the resources of the country as relates to forage, provisions, horses, mules, beef cattle, and other supplies useful to troops. An officer who has not the facility to remember accurately these points should never fail to keep a record as he marches along.

     107. Patrol duty has also an important part to perform in connection with Advance and Rear Guards. To understand how to do this it is necessary to have a correct knowledge of the principles on which they are organized and directed.
(See Reconnoisances, page 94, Reg.)

     108. ADVANCE GUARDS. - Advance and Rear Guards are terms applied to the forces disposed for the protection of the troops when they are moving, and correspond in their object with the Grand Guards when the troops are in camp. They are intended to guard against a sudden attack of the enemy, an ambuscade, to discover the position of the enemy, and to conceal the operations of the main body from him.

     109. The following diagram shows the arrangement of the Advance and Rear Guards as directed in General Orders No. 69, Headquarters Army of the Potomac, February 25, 1862. It supposes the force to be a Division of three Brigades, but it is manifest that it may be extended to any number of Divisions. It supposes the column to be marching by flank along an ordinary road. The same principles apply if the Division were marching in line, by simply extending the line of skirmishers, and the number of flankers would be necessarily reduced. 


ON THE MARCH.-The same general principles apply to the protection of a column in motion as to an army in camp. The scene continually shifting, however, redoubled precautions are necessary, and stronger Advanced Guards, of course, are required.

The advance is taken by a line of skirmishers, extending four or five hundred yards beyond the flanks of the column on each side. The skirmishers correspond with the Pickets in Camp. About one hundred yards behind this line march the Supports, three in number. The centre Support keeps to the road to be followed by the column. The officer commanding this Support must be well instructed as to the direction he is to pursue, and in detail as to the route and rate of march. The flank Supports move about three hundred yards to the right and left.

The Reserve marches about one hundred and fifty yards behind the centre Support.

The main body of the column follows from a half-mile to a mile behind the Reserve.

The flanks of the column are protected by Flankers, disposed according to similar principles.

The outer lines to the right and left are formed of skirmishers, moving by the flank, and keeping their lines about four hundred yards from the flank of the column. The Supports of these Flankers, one to each Brigade, move by the flank, about one hundred and fifty yards inside the line of Flankers.

The Rear Guard marches half a mile behind the main body. The measures of spaces given are simply indicative. They will be modified according to circumstances.

The Advanced Guard is composed of troops of all arms, and in strength should not be less than one tenth of the entire force.

The line of skirmishers (except in extraordinary cases) will consist of light Infantry. The Supports will consist of Infantry. A small detachment of Cavalry is attached to each Support, to act as scouts and messengers. A few pieces of Field Artillery march in rear of the centre. The Reserve will comprise at least one-half the entire strength ,,f Cavalry and Infantry of the Advanced Guard, and the principal portion of the Artillery.

The number of flankers is regulated so as to have the lines of skirmishers extend from the Advanced Guard to the Rear Guard. Their Supports being equal, in the aggregate, to the number of files composing the lines of skirmishers. Small detachments of Cavalry will be with each of the Supports, to perform the duty of scouting the country beyond the lines of skirmishers, and to act as messengers.

The Rear Guard of an Army advancing on the enemy need not be stronger than one-twentieth part of the enemy force. On a retreat, it should be not less than one eighth of the Infantry, and as large a proportion of Artillery and Cavalry as can be used to advantage.

The duties of the Rear Guard, when the column is advancing, are to collect and bring forward all stragglers from the Army, whether men or animals, and to prevent any sudden attack upon the rear of the column or train. It will be arranged in the following order: The main body of the Rear Guard will follow about five hundred yards behind the rear of the column. Two hundred yards further to the rear will follow a line of skirmishers, extending about a hundred yards on each side beyond the flanks of the column. A small number of Cavalry will be attached to the Rear Guard, to be employed in communicating with the main body,

In retreat, the duties of the Rear Guard are of the most important nature; and upon their proper performance the safety of the whole Army depends.

Every favorable position must be seized by the Commander to make a stand against the pursuers with his Infantry; charge their advanced lines with his Cavalry, and bring his Artillery into battery. Always bear in mind, that it may at any moment be possible, by energetic action and judicious management, to entirely check the pursuit, or even to turn defeat into victory.

As their movements depend entirely upon the dispositions of the enemy in pursuit, no definite rules can be laid down for any particular order of march.

In advancing into a portion of the country which has not been thoroughly and recently recommitted, too much caution cannot be observed to guard against surprise and ambuscade. Every ravine and piece of forest should be carefully examined by Infantry. Should Cavalry be in advance, they will dismount on approaching a ravine or wood, and a small number advance on foot and ascertain whether it is occupied by the enemy. Artillery, particularly, must never be allowed to come within rifle range of any cover which has not been explored.

Every exertion must be used by the officers of the whole force to prevent any of the men from halting, or leaving the ranks on any pretense whatever

Officers in charge of trains will strictly prohibit any unauthorized persons from riding upon the wagons or ambulances.

Depredations and plundering of every description will be most surely and severely punished. [G.O. 69.]

110. The duties devolving upon the Lieutenant in connection with Advanced Guards, ordinarily would be the command of one or more supports to the skirmish line or flankers. His attention should be particularly directed to maintain his line of skirmishers or flankers, to see that the men preserve the proper direction and interval, and that they keep their places in line, all the time keeping a good look out for the enemy, and approaching all places of cover where an enemy could conceal a force, with all the necessary precaution.

     111.  Both Skirmishers and flankers are guided in march by the movements of the main column, when it moves they move, and when it halts they halt.  If the enemy is met in front, the skirmishers halt and preserve their order and steadiness until the Commanding Officer decides and directs what shall be done.  The enemy must be in evident force, however; the Skirmishers should not halt simply at the sight of a few of the enemy. If the enemy appears on the flank, the flankers hold their ground to give the column time to prepare for action. In no case should the men fall back in disorder at the appearance of the enemy; if it is necessary to fall back, and the fact has been made fully apparent, they should fall back in order, sending word to the column at once.

     112. The Rear Guard is quite as important as the Advance Guard, and is governed by the same general principles. On the retreat is when the Rear Guard displays its greatest importance. Great tact and judgment are necessary in the officer commanding, to enable him to take advantage of the defensive positions along the line of retreat, to delay 1w enemy and compel him to form a line of battle, and then to withdraw before he can avail himself of his arrangements for attack, the object being to postpone the moment for withdrawing only so long as may be safe to retire.

     113. Bridges, fords, ravines, defiles, &c., are the positions to be chosen by the Rear Guard. If the enemy attack in small force they are easily repulsed, if they attack in large force time is necessary to develop his troops. When he is nearly ready to attack is the time to withdraw. In order to resume the pursuit he is obliged to form column, which again involves time; this being often repeated the main column gets so far advanced that pursuit is useless. Time must not be allowed to the enemy to detach a flanking party, which, by turning the Rear Guard, may get between it and the main column, and thus delay it and perhaps cause its capture.

     114. The word flanker in the Regulations (page 95), has a more general meaning than that given in the foregoing; it is there applied to a detachment from the main Army, sent out to attack and annoy the enemy's flanks and rear, and interrupt his communications. That application of the word has become almost obsolete.
Some general principles in connection with Advance Guard duty are found under "Marches. " (Reg. 677).

     115. POLICE.-Lieutenants in camp have often to act as Officer of Police, whose duty it is to see that the General Parade Ground, and ground about the Field Officers quarters, are cleaned up daily, and that each company keeps its own grounds in order, and in fact that the entire camp is kept in a proper state of cleanliness.

     116. Each company has its detail for Police for its own respective ground, but the guard detail which marched off the morning previous constitutes the detail for "General Police." The police call sounds generally immediately after Reveille, when the First Sergeant orders the police details to fall in. That for General Police is marched to the Parade Ground, that for the company is immediately set to work on the company grounds under the direction of a non-commissioned officer.

     117. The Officer of Police superintends the parading of the General Police, and then directs what the detail shall do. The duty consists generally in sweeping up and removing all offal and refuse from the General Parade Ground, color line, and the vicinity of the Field Officers' quarters. Police call sounds twice in the day, in the morning immediately after Reveille, and again in the afternoon before Retreat Parade.

     118. Twice during the day, therefore, the camp is expected to be in perfect order. When regularly performed this duty is light, and serves to keep the camp perfectly neat. In active service the routine of this duty is so often interrupted as to break it up frequently; but it will be found advisable to renew it at all times when the absence of an enemy and the duties of the troops will admit of it.

     119. The detail is often reduced by the sickness or absence on other duty of some member of the guard detail of the day previous. They must be accounted for by the First Sergeant, but it is not usual to replace them. One hour, morning and evening, is generally allowed for this work. The Officer of Police inspects the grounds before the detail is dismissed, and if the duty has been imperfectly performed they are required to go over the neglected parts again.

     120. It is generally only when a Regiment or more of troops are encamped together that the Officer of Police is called upon, where the amount of work and the number of Lieutenants for duty will justify it.

     121. In smaller camps a Sergeant of Police is sufficient under the direction of the Officer of the Day. In garrison, the general parade, and other grounds used in common, are kept in order by the prisoners or if there are none, a special detail is made, and the duty is directed by the Officer of the Day.

     122. Where there is much other duty for the troops to do, the foregoing method of policing the camp is too often omitted, owing to the police detail being broken up by details for other duties. In such cases the camp is always greatly neglected, and it is allowed to go on from bad to worse until it becomes a matter no longer to be overlooked, and the whole command is turned out for a general cleaning up. It costs less labor and the camp is always in good order and a picture of neatness, where a daily police system is adopted and properly carried out; it indicates a good state of discipline, and the health and comfort of the troops is greatly promoted.

     123. A complete system of drainage should be adopted, and puddles of water not be allowed to stand and dry up after a rain. Each company kitchen should collect its slops, and remove them away from the camps or bury them, so as neither to offend the eye nor the nose. Cavalry and Artillery should sweep out and remove the manure of the stables daily.

     124. The cleanliness of a camp depends greatly upon the selection of the location. Care should always be had to select ground a little rolling, or a plain with a slight inclination. The season of the Year and the length of time the ground is likely to be occupied should be considered. Camps that are only to be occupied for a day or two need not be selected with reference to their police; but when they are to be occupied for weeks, and perhaps months, the question of police becomes an important one. A complete drainage is of the first importance; for the soil is very soon made so compact under the men's feet that it will not absorb the rain, and if the water cannot run off it collects in puddles and pools, that, in warm weather, generates poisonous vapors, and, in winter, causes uncomfortable mud-holes. If the men are required regularly to clean up the camp at stated periods they will be careful in creating unnecessary litter, which they know they will be required to remove, and cleanliness soon becomes a habit.

     125. The sinks are also subject to the inspection of the Officer of Police.  Each Company usually has its own sink. The sinks consist, when the troops are in the field and in camp for several days at one place, of trenches about ten feet long, two feet wide, and three or four feet deep, dug in the earth, and screened by shrub branches, located about two hundred yards in front of the encampment, and inside of the line of sentinels of the Police Guard.

     126. Sinks cannot be constructed too soon after a camp is once established, and the Officer of Police is usually entrusted with the duty of directing where they are to be placed, and seeing that the necessary number are properly made. The earth that is dug out is thrown back again, little by little, every day or two, thus rendering them less offensive. In due time they are entirely filled up, and new ones dug.

     127. In Garrison the sinks are more permanent and are kept clean by washing, and the use of lime. They require constant attention, or they soon become very offensive. In Camp and Garrison there are always established certain Police Regulations and Orders, intended to regulate the cleanliness of the place, which it is the particular duty of the Officer of Police to see enforced and complied with. All violations should be promptly reported, and the necessary steps taken to have the offence punished.

     128. FATIGUE AND WORKING PARTIES. - Lieutenants are constantly required to take charge of Fatigue or Working Parties, and direct their labors. The work to be performed may be any of the labors incident to military operations, of sufficient magnitude to require a number of men to do it. Ordinarily it will consist of work pertaining to the erection of field fortifications, such as digging trenches, throwing up parapets, constructing abattis, felling forests, building stockades, making gabions, facines, etc., etc. It may be some labor in connection with the construction required in building a military post, erecting quarters, stables, storehouses, etc. Often he is directed to improve the means of communication by making new roads, building bridges, or repairing them, etc.

     129. The work may be required under circumstances of danger, either exposed to the enemy's fire, or liable to attack; more frequently, however, it will be a peaceful duty, without danger and free of all inconvenience, except the fatigue incident to the work. In any case the officer in charge, in addition to the simple duty of directing and controlling the men in the performance of the work, has the opportunity to display his personal knowledge and capacity, and if he has anticipated the work by learning all about it, it will save him from the mortification of an exhibition of ignorance, if it does nothing more, and may possibly attract attention to his merits that might otherwise pass unobserved.

     130. If, in the construction of fortifications, the officer shows that he has given attention to the subject of Military Engineering, it will manifest itself in the disposition of the men for the work, so that the greatest number can be employed at the same time, without being in each other's way; in a knowledge of the details, avoiding all errors, and proceeding at once to the labor without delay, and without unnecessary questions. In siege operations he will be able to protect his men as much as possible from the fire of the enemy.

     131. In the making of a road, the construction of a bridge, the building of a block-house or stockade, quarters, or storehouses, he has the opportunity of showing any knowledge and capacity he may possess. But whether he have any special knowledge of the work to be done or not, he must be able to control his men, preserve order, and enforce a proper amount of labor on the part of the men. When it is necessary to take precautions against the enemy he must be able to do so with judgment and skill, to guard against disaster.

     132. A fatigue-party cannot usually be relied upon for its own defence, especially where the attack may be sudden and short, as in a siege where the besieged make sorties against the besiegers in the trenches, for the reason that the men cannot work with their accoutrements on, and if they take them off before they can be replaced they will be defeated. In such cases the fatigue-party should be attended by a guard to protect them whilst they are at work, or, what would be the same thing, let the fatigue-party be so large that a portion may stand guard whilst the other works, and in that way relieve each other. The arms of the working-party should be taken to the ground with them under such circumstances, and stacked at the rallying point under charge of the guard, which should be so disposed that they can defend them until the working-party can resume their arms.

     133. The most difficult case is when a foraging party is sent outside of the lines to procure supplies of any kind, the difficulty of defending the wagons and guarding against a sudden attack is usually very great, and requires every precaution and foresight on the part of the officer, and courage and decision when an attack does take place. Such parties are generally very weak and defenseless, and the country may be such as to greatly favor the enemy, especially if the foraging is to be performed in the enemy's country. The general principles given for the protection of a Patrol apply in such cases. When attacked the guard must seek to occupy the enemy until the wagons can get out of the way, and all the men that are not needed to hold the enemy in check, go with the wagons to assist them, and to guard against detachments sent to intercept.  In no case should the wagons be left to themselves if there is any possibility that they may be intercepted.

     134. An Engineer or Staff-officer sent with a working party, whilst he cannot exercise command or give orders affecting the men, he nevertheless has an advisory control as to the work that cannot be ignored, and it is the duty of the officer in charge of the working party to conform to his counsel, and should there be any conflict, it is always best that the point at issue be made in writing. The Staff officer gives orders in the name of his Commanding Officer with reference to the character of the work, the time and means of performance-, and it is the duty of the officer in the immediate charge of the men to conform to these orders.

     135. Details for fatigue, as well as other purposes are more to be relied upon if composed of complete companies, or detachments from the same company, particularly in duties that involve danger. Men have not the same confidence in strangers that they have in their messmates. It is also a great convenience to the officer if he knows his men. There is less danger of straggling and shirking, because the offenders are easily recognized and punished. Where the party is composed of many small details from different companies, the utmost vigilance is necessary to keep it together, and to get each man to do his share of work, particularly in times of danger. A list should be made, the first thing, of the men's names and their Company and Regiment, and the roll called frequently.

     136. Much space might be taken up here with details of the best mode of performing the different kinds of work usually required of fatigue and working parties, in fact it would make a respectable little volume in itself. These details, however, may be found more complete than can be stated here, in other books, and it can only be indicated, generally, what the subjects are that deserve attention, and where to find the information concerning them.

     137. The different kinds of labor consequent upon a siege, in building fortifications and intrenching positions, may be learned from Mahan's "Field Fortifications" and Duane's "Manual for Engineer Troops." Downing's "Country Houses" will afford many excellent suggestions in the construction of officer's quarters, barracks, storehouses, etc. In the building of roads, construction of bridges, dams, railroads, and many other useful points, Mahan's "Civil Engineering" should be consulted. Galton's "Art of Travel" has many useful suggestions to the officer on frontier stations and in campaigns. The "Aide Memoire to the Military Sciences," edited by the Royal Engineers, English Army, is a valuable book to the military student.

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