271. Lieutenants are selected to perform the staff duties of the Regiment in the capacity of Adjutant, Quartermaster, and Commissary. Their duties to be given in detail are so extensive and important as to require a separate book. Only a general outline of their duties will here be given.

272. ADJUTANT.-The Adjutant is the official organ of the Regimental Commander through whom he communicates with the subordinates in the Regiment. He has charge of the books, records, and papers pertaining to the Regiment. He superintends the machinery and workings of the Regiment. He communicates the orders of the commander, and sees that they are obeyed, and that the regular returns and reports are made. He keeps the roster of the officers, makes the details that are called for from the Regiment, and forms and marches on the guard at guard mounting.

He is required to keep the following books:

Morning Report book.
Descriptive book.
Special Order book.
General Order book.
Letter book (of letters sent).
Endorsement book.
Index Book (of letters received).

The following returns and reports are required to be forwarded by him after their revision and signature by the Commanding Officer of the Regiment:

Daily. -Consolidated Morning Report.

Tri-monthly. -10th, 20th, and last day of the month, viz.:

Tri-monthly Report of the Regiment.


Monthly Return of the Regiment.

Monthly Return of Recruiting.

Bi-monthly.-At the end of February, April, June, August, October, and December, viz.:

Muster Roll of the Field, Staff, and Band.

Report of Damaged Arms.

Quarterly.-At the end of March, June, September, and December, viz.:

Return of Deceased Soldiers.

Quarto-monthly.-At the end of April, August, and December, viz.:

Account of the Regimental Fund.

Annually.-End of December, viz.:

Annual Return of Casualties.

Report of Name and record of Firing of Regimental Prizeman.

273. In addition to the foregoing regular reports and returns, the Adjutant is required to make all the reports and returns, and keep books similar to a Company Commander in case he has a band to take care of and provide for. (Reg. 81.) He must also be familiar with, and understand the orders, regulations, and laws relative to clothing, rations, and pay for troops and forage for public animals, and the regular and authorized supplies of all kinds for troops. This involves a knowledge of the forms, object and time of making, and the destination of the following papers, viz.:

Requisitions for forage, fuel, stationery, straw, and for every kind of property: as arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, camp, and garrison equipage, quartermaster's property, and all other property that may be authorized to be issued to troops.

Provision returns.

He should have a sufficient knowledge to be able to revise and determine the correctness and disposition of the following company papers as they are received, viz.:

Certificate of disability.
Final statements of soldier's accounts of pay and clothing.
Description rolls.
Leaves of absence, furloughs, passes, sick furloughs, etc.
Affidavits, certificates, etc.
Inventories of deceased soldiers.
Proceedings of Councils of Administration.
Inventories and inspection reports of public property.
Inventories of public property, and applications for Boards of Survey.
Complaints of soldiers, applications for transfer, etc.
Returns of killed, wounded, and missing in action.
Reports of target practice.
Guard report.
Charges and specifications.

And all letters, correspondence, and reports that are usually sent up from the officers and men of a Regiment in relation to their duties.

274. He should be well informed in the etiquette of service, both in the official and social relations of officers, as many questions in relation thereto will be referred to him. He should himself bear in mind that he only signs those communications from the Commanding Officer of the Post to his subordinates; and the Commanding Officer must himself sign all communications that require to be sent up to his superiors (Reg. 451). Art. xxxiv. Reg. requires his special attention and study.

The Adjutant has no right to give an order in the name of his commander in a special and peculiar case. But in all cases involving a general principle, in which the Adjutant can readily understand what will be the commander's decision in the case, from decisions already made, or from the nature of the case, he can with perfect propriety assume to give orders in the name of his commander. He should, however, feel perfectly sure that he will be sustained by his commander.

275. At a Post the Adjutant may exercise a great influence over the comfort and happiness of the command. In the social relations between officers and their families he can so arrange the duties and pleasures of the Post, as materially to affect all. He has control of the Band, and the administration of the services of this adjunct of the Regiment or Post will add materially to the comfort and pleasure of officers and men.

276. The Adjutant may, with perfect propriety, constitute himself manager to a greater or less extent, of every affair that requires the co-operation of the various members of the command. Some one must assume to direct and take responsibility in the matter, and the habit of looking to the Adjutant in all official matters, makes him also the natural director of most matters of a social or convivial character. A suitableness in all these respects will conduce greatly to the reputation and advancement of the officer, and aid materially in harmonizing a command and preserving friendship among its members.

277. As Post Adjutant there is, in the general principles, no difference in the duties; the word Post takes the place of Regimental in the title of headquarters, and all the reports and returns and papers usually required. The annexed tabular statements show the papers required from Post and Regimental Headquarters, and their difference in title. The Commander is responsible for the correctness of the books and papers, although the work devolves upon the Adjutant.


278. The Adjutant has charge of the ceremony of Guard Mounting. He parades the Guard, verifies the details, and superintends the inspection, or inspects himself in the absence of an Officer of the Guard. He also makes and parades all other details that may be required from time to time from the Regiment or Post.

279. The Adjutant is usually Post or Regimental treasurer, and has charge of the Post or Regimental fund. He has charge of the bakery, from which the greater portion of the fund is derived. It is, however, not a necessity that he shall have these last duties, but custom and convenience have assigned them to him.

280. The Adjutant should be selected with a view to his fitness for the position, as the harmony of the Regiment or Post will depend greatly upon him. Sound judgment, a disinterested character, and genial manners, will enable him to settle many questions of duty and detail between officers and men without offending-, above all, however, he should possess superior knowledge of his duties and conscientious feeling in discharging them.

281. Above all things he must avoid favoritism. It is in his power to make material distinctions, and, if he cannot overcome or prevent the impression that he is partial and unjust, his usefulness will be irremediably counteracted. Ignorance or neglect of his duties will be far more unpardonable in his position, than in that of any other officer in the Regiment.

282. QUARTERMASTER.-The Regimental Quartermaster is also selected with a view to his special fitness for the position, and there is no post in the service that is so hard to fill with credit and good will to all. Every one in the Regiment is more or less dependent upon the usefulness and efficiency of this officer.

283. His duties, which do not differ in the main from a Staff officer of the Quartermaster's Department, are so extensive as to make only an outline of his duties possible here, hoping some day to make them the subject of a separate text.

284. He is appointed by the Colonel or Commanding Officer of the Regiment, subject to the approval of the Secretary of War. (Reg. 73.) In his duties he is governed by the same rules, regulations, and laws that apply to all Quartermasters. He has the same accountability for money and property, and makes the same returns and reports. He differs only from a Quartermaster of the department in his appointment, and he may, therefore, be relieved from his position at any time by the Commanding Officer, unless, as in the case of Volunteer Regiments, he has been mustered into the service as a Quartermaster of the Regiment; the rule is that, if he has been appointed by the Commanding Officer of the Regiment, he can be relieved by the same authority. The same is true of Acting Quartermasters at a military Post.

285. The duties of a Regimental Quartermaster are limited to supplying the wants of the Regiment; in an Infantry Regiment he will have much less to do than in a Cavalry Regiment, or an Artillery Regiment, where horses and forage and an additional amount of transportation must be provided by him. Through him are obtained all the supplies furnished by the Quartermaster's department. (Reg. 1064-5.)

286. He obtains from the Company Commanders requisitions and estimates of what they require, revises them, and sees that they are correct as required by regulations and orders, and consolidates them, and procures the supplies from the brigade or depot Quartermaster, and issues them to the Company Commanders.

287. The position of Quartermaster requires two essentially different qualifications, the out-door or active work, and the in-door or clerical duty, that is the practical and the theoretical, which are not often in the same man.

288. The practical involves the qualities of the foreman to direct and keep employed a large force of workmen; of the intelligent and active business man, whose knowledge of the markets of trade and materials, enables him to buy and sell for the government to the greatest advantage; and the engineer, architect, and artisan, who can direct the building of public quarters, storehouses, railroads, and steamboats, and their repairs, and thus provide

for troops in garrison or in motion.

289. The theoretical requires that he shall fully understand the mechanism of his department, and the system of accountability as established by law and regulations, to enable him to account correctly for the money and property that passes through his hands; it includes a knowledge of all the forms and papers required by the treasury department in the settlement of his money and property accounts.

290. The following general principles must be borne in mind, viz.:

All public money received must be accounted for, and sustained by receipts from the party to whom the money has been paid, whether disbursed for services or purchases; these receipts are made in a required form, depending upon the nature of the disbursement. (See forms of vouchers to Abstracts A, B, and C, Quartermaster's Regulations.)

291. All public property must be accounted for, whether received by transfer from officers (Abstract E), by purchase (Abstract D), by capture, impressment, manufacture, saving, or discovery (Abstract N); whether the property has been transferred to other officers (Abstract M), or issued for use or service (Abstracts F, G, H, 1, and K), or expended, lost, destroyed or captured (Abstract L).

192. All accountability may be rendered so far as the papers are concerned, if for all property or money received care is taken to obtain corresponding invoices, or lists, signed by the party from whom it is received, or inventories made at the time, and duly certified to by disinterested officers, or affidavits of citizens or soldiers; and where money or property is transferred to another party to obtain the required receipt in proper form according to the nature of the transfer; and in all cases to be able to show proper authority for the transaction, whether it be the written order of the superior, his approval as on requisition and abstract, or the necessity of service as set forth in certificates of officers or affidavits of citizens or enlisted men; and, finally, the officer's own certificate. These papers must be procured and filed at the time, any delay or postponement, may defer the opportunity past return, as the dangers of battle, the exigencies of service, the elements, or death may intervene and prevent another opportunity.

293. Clothing, camp and garrison equipage must be kept separate from other Quartermaster's property, and be accounted for on separate returns; in exchanging invoices and receipts, therefore, the different kinds of property should not be included on the same invoice and receipt, and it must be borne in mind that the property of one department cannot be gratuitously transferred to another; ordnance property, commissary property, quartermaster's property, clothing, camp and garrison equipage, and money of the same departments must be kept separate, on returns, receipts, and invoices.

294. In large armies the Regimental Quartermaster will have, ordinarily, no disbursements to make, and his duties will be limited to the regular supplies, and the wants of his Regiment, which will not be very difficult or laborious, but still constantly recurring, and, therefore, requiring strict and prompt attention.

295. There is one general principle that should govern throughout all his duties; never to postpone any duty, or the completion of a paper beyond the time required to perfect it; the time when it can be done will always be the most convenient, and if put off the opportunity may be entirely lost or recovered with difficulty.

296. COMMISSARY.-The Regimental Commissary is also a Lieutenant, and the custom has been to appoint him in the same way as provided for the Quartermaster. (Reg. 73.) Many Regiments, however, are not allowed an additional Lieutenant for this duty, and in most instances the duty is performed by the Regimental Quartermaster acting in both capacities.

297. The duty is of the utmost importance, but plain and simple, and requires simply attention and integrity. It is important for the reason that the troops must be fed, and fed properly, for nothing will so soon demoralize an army as the neglect or failure to supply the legitimate and proper ration.

298. The regulations for the subsistence department are much the most clear and complete of any department in the Army, and require no explanation. They govern the Regimental Commissary as well as the Staff Commissary, and, being limited to the supply of certain articles of provisions, the sole duty of the Commissary is to keep on hand the required articles, and weigh them out, and keep an account of the same. The transportation of the supplies is entrusted to the Quartermaster's department, thus relieving him of the most responsible part of the duty in connection with the feeding of the troops.

299. A purchasing Commissary has a more difficult and responsible duty to perform, and circumstances may render it necessary for a Regimental Commissary to do this duty, particularly when the Regiment is remotely situated, and cost of transportation would make it more economical to obtain the supplies on the spot.

300. In this case a knowledge of the articles composing the ration, and experience in trade is very essential, notwithstanding that the regulations contemplate the services of an inspector to examine the supplies. The same general principles govern in the smallest purchases that apply to a depot Commissary purchasing for a large army.

301. It is only in case of urgent necessity that the Commissary can go into open market to make purchases. If time and circumstances permit, proposals are invited, and the lowest responsible bidder receives the contract, and a written agreement is made in quintuplicate, and the faithful fulfillment thereof guaranteed by a sufficient bond made in duplicate. (Reg. 1178 to 1182; see forms 36, 37, and 38 Sub. Reg,)

302. The accountability of the Commissary is similar to the accountability in the other departments of the service. There are three sets of papers that must be kept distinct, viz.: The account current and vouchers, showing the receipt and expenditure of all public moneys on account of the commissary department; the return of provisions and forage with its abstracts of issues, showing all the provisions and forage received and issued; and the property return, accounting for all the Commissary property, except provisions and forage, for which the Commissary has become responsible within the month; all these papers must be rendered monthly.

303. There does not seem to be any definite regulations for the appointment of Commissaries, except in the Cavalry Regiments, and for them the law allows an additional Lieutenant for that position. All the other Regiments seem to be unprovided for, and the custom has been, in most of the old Regiments, to require the Regimental Quartermaster to act as Commissary also, and in all other cases to appoint an Acting Commissary, as in the case of an Acting Quartermaster, who is governed in the discharge of his duties by the same laws and regulations that are provided for Staff Commissaries.

304. All subalterns, acting in the capacity of Commissaries, are entitled to $20 per month, minus one ration, in addition to their pay as Lieutenant. The account requires the approval of the Commissary General, and his certificate that the Commissary has acted in the capacity of Commissary during the period for which pay is claimed. (Act March 2d, 1827, see. 2.)



305. It is not unusual for Lieutenants to be assigned to duty in some capacity properly pertaining to the General Staff, either detached or on the staff of some General officer. It is not intended to do more than indicate what these are, at this time.

306. He may be called upon to act in any one of the following capacities, viz.:

Adjutant General.
Inspector General.
Judge Advocate.
Ordnance Officer.
Mustering Officer.
Provost Marshal.

307. ADJUTANT GENERAL.-Adjutant Generals are attached to the command of some General officer, or Colonel acting as such, as his organ of communication with his command, and to take charge of the books, papers, and records belonging thereto, and to conduct the machinery of the organization to which he is assigned. In the absence of a staff officer of the Adjutant General's department, to perform the duty, an officer is assigned to act in the capacity, who is announced as such in orders, and must be obeyed and respected accordingly.

308. An Acting Adjutant General performs his duties under precisely the same laws and regulations as an Adjutant General proper. He has the same authority as he would have if duly commissioned in the Adjutant General's department, so long as he acts in the capacity.

309. His duties require a more extended and varied knowledge of all branches of the service than any other position in the Army, as they extend to details that require positive knowledge of the administration and workings of every part of the service. Adjutant Generals are ex-officio Inspector Generals (Act, July 5, 183S, see. 3), and have, therefore, the authority to investigate and inquire into the condition and conduct of every part of the command to which they are attached.

310. His authority, if permitted by the General, may be nearly as extensive as that of the General himself, depending upon the confidence that his immediate commander has in him. As the responsibility of his acts rest with his immediate commander, the Adjutant General, or officer acting as such, should have a definite understanding as to how far be will be sustained; this is necessary, for some General officers prefer to occupy themselves with all the details of their commands, whilst others leave all the matters of routine to their staff officers.

311. The functions, however, which pertain to the Adjutant General, and which even the General should scrupulously respect, is the charge of the office and the books and records that are kept in it; he is held responsible for its proper management, and any course of the General which obstructs him in the proper management of it, is a matter of just dissatisfaction.

312. All orders of the General, and every matter of detail affecting the command, should be executed through the Assistant Adjutant General's office; all orders affecting the command in any way, all details for detached service, details for guard, all change in the position or condition of the troops, all accessions to the command, all reports and communications from subordinates to the General, in fact, everything essential to the command should be transacted through his office.

313. The following books should be kept in every Assistant Adjutant General's office, viz.:

    General Order book.
Special Order book.
Letter book (record of letters sent).
Letter book (record of letters received).
Endorsement and memorandum book.

314. In addition to the foregoing books, Department and Army Headquarters should have the following additional books, viz.:

    Station book of Officers.
Station book of Troops.
Book of Discharges.
Return book.

315. The returns and reports required from every office where an Assistant Adjutant General, or officer acting as such, is on duty, are the following, viz.:

    Morning Report, or a Tri-monthly.
    Monthly Return.

316. Besides the foregoing, special returns and reports may be called for by higher authority at any time, or may be made without being called for if deemed necessary for the information of the next in authority. The following papers are also made by the Assistant Adjutant General, when circumstances require them, viz.:

Return of the Killed, Wounded and Missing. (Reg. 465.) 


Prisoners of war captured by the enemy.


Prisoners captured from the enemy. I (Reg. 469.)


    Report of the Enemy's Killed and Wounded. (Reg. 469.)Return of Captured Property. (Reg. 470.)
Files of all General and Special Orders issued. (Reg. 448.)
Report of change of Staff Officers, of Troops, of Posts, New Organizations, etc. (Reg. 466-7.)

317. Letters, reports, requisitions, estimates, court-martial proceedings, proceedings of courts of inquiry, military commissions, boards of survey, military boards of examination and investigation, etc., etc., pass through the Assistant Adjutant General's office, and should be fully understood by him.

318. The Assistant Adjutant General should also be familiar with the papers, returns, reports, etc., of all subordinate organizations, their form, purport, use and destination, in order to correct errors, give orders and facilitate administration in the command.

319. INSPECTOR GENERAL.-A Lieutenant may be assigned to duty as Acting Assistant Inspector General, in which capacity he is required to perform the duties as if he was an officer of the Inspector General's Department. In an army there is usually an Inspector General, or officer acting as such, to each brigade, division, and army corps.

320. The duties of an Inspector, if properly attended to, are very extensive and arduous, depending upon the fidelity with which they are performed in the details. He is the officer to whom the General refers to inform him of the precise condition of each portion of the command, its efficiency, discipline, location, and wants, and if he has done his duty thoroughly he will save the General a vast deal of labor and much time.

321. The reports required of the Inspectors must extend to every detail (Reg. 471), and therefore they require an extensive knowledge of the regulations, laws and practice of the service in every department. The ceremony of the inspection of troops is laid down in Art. XXX., Reg. 303. It is incomplete as it does not extend to Cavalry and Artillery; the custom of the service has been to assimilate the inspections of these arms to the form given for a Battalion of Infantry as nearly as possible. Regs. 321 to 326 specify additional objects of the Inspector's attention.

322. Inspectors are required to muster troops every two months. (Art XXXI., Reg. 327.) Muster should be preceded by a review and inspection. (Reg. 329.) The ceremony of review is prescribed in Reg. 349, and what follows.

323. To parade, inspect, and review a command will give a very good idea of what it can do in that way, but is not a reliable criterion of what it is at other times. The inspector should be present, therefore, at such other times, without notice or warning, as will enable him to inform himself what the character of the command is under the various circumstances to which it may be exposed. He should visit it at unusual hours, so as to learn the daily workings, and keep himself informed of its condition and wants.

324. He should be prepared to answer all questions as to the character and efficiency of any portion of the command under his inspection. He should notify his immediate commander of anything that may not be right in any part of his command in order that it may be corrected with as little delay as possible.

325. It is greatly to the credit of the Inspector if he is feared and even hated in his command, as it is fair to presume that he has done his duty in reporting the errors of the command, for all troops are more or less derelict, and all troops dislike to be reminded of the fact; and all troops, if not stimulated by the fear of punishment or condemnation, or the desire of reward, or to excel, soon degenerate and become indifferent.

326. To derive any reliable knowledge of the condition of a Regiment by an Inspector on parade, it must be minute and thorough. A Regiment may look well generally, and prove to be very bad when examined in detail. To a full Regiment one entire day should be devoted to its inspection. The memoranda should be made at the time, or mistakes will occur and injustice be done.

327. The Adjutant General's office furnishes blanks that are to be used by the Inspectors. Instructions as to the time and manner of making the reports and as to the duties of Inspectors are printed on the blanks for the guidance of the Inspectors. The blanks are prepared for the different arms of service, as Infantry, Artillery and Cavalry respectively, and for all three in case of the report of a post or other mixed command.

328. AIDE-DE-CAMP.-The duties of an Aide-de-Camp are overlooked in our service. Usually an Aide is a young man of family or influence, appointed on a General's staff, to learn the details of the military profession with as little inconvenience as possible. They are generally too young and too inexperienced to be of any use except to carry an order or a message or some other equally plain and simple duty.

329. Properly under the law, and the custom in the French service, the Aide de Camp is second only to the General himself; he is ex-officio Adjutant General, and in the latter capacity is ex-officio Inspector General. He should be competent to represent the General on the battle field, and be able to give orders as if the General himself were present; he should possess sufficient knowledge and experience to receive the entire confidence of the General and know his plans and designs, so that if the General should fall, the disaster would not be irreparable.

330. An Aide-de-Camp should be second only to the General in ability and experience, and competent to deliver verbal orders of the highest importance on the field of battle, to comprehend their intent and to judge of the necessity of a modification of the order where there is no time to return for instructions, and to be able to assume the responsibility and determine what the modification shall be.

331. He should possess sufficient experience to understand the movements of the enemy, to estimate his force, to anticipate his designs, and to determine the dispositions that must be made to meet him, the same as if his General were present. He should, in fact, be the counterpart of the General to represent him whenever it is necessary, or where he desires to be represented.

332. There is no distinct and positive duty for an Aide-de-Camp; he is to do whatever may be required of him by the General, and his services will be in proportion to the amount of knowledge, ability and experience that he may possess. The whole military profession is before him, and he will be appreciated in proportion to his knowledge of it.

333. To be of any use at all, however, he must know the composition of the force which the General commands, the names of the commanders of the different parts, their organization, location and strength, the means of communication, and the time required to communicate with them. He should know their character, discipline, availability and condition. He should see them frequently, and keep pace with the changes and alterations that are made.

334. It is not possible for the General to see and know every thing himself, and that portion which the General can with confidence entrust to his Aid-de-Camp, he should require them to attend to, in order to be as free and fresh for any emergency as possible-, and the Aide-de-Camp should be at hand to relieve his General from as much detail and mere routine as possible, without even putting him to the inconvenience of designating what he shall do.

335. He should be a man whom the General can make a confidant of when necessary, and to whom he can entrust an official secret, and feel that it will be as sacredly kept as if he alone knew it.

336. Aides-de-Camp, in our service, are selected from the line of the Army, and usually from the Lieutenants, although they may be taken from higher grades. They accompany the General in all his changes of station and command, after being once appointed. The General may select his Aides-de-Camp from his own command without any other authority, but if he desires to select from another command he must apply to higher authority to make the appointment.

337. QUARTERMASTER.-In the absence of an officer of the Quartermaster's Department, it often happens that a Lieutenant may be appointed an acting Quartermaster to perform the duty. Usually a Regimental Quartermaster would be selected when the vacancy exists on a General's Staff, and the position in the Regiment be filled by an acting Regimental Quartermaster; in either case the duties are entirely similar, differing only in the amount of duty according to the size of the command.

338. Brigade Quartermasters act through the Regimental Quartermasters, and Division Quartermasters through the Brigade Quartermasters, and so throughout; a Brigade Quartermaster would ordinarily be taken from the Regimental Quartermasters, and Division Quartermaster from the Brigade Quartermasters, and so on throughout the service, and finally the real vacancy would be filled by some Lieutenant as Acting Regimental Quartermaster.

339. At a military post, however, particularly if the command is small, a line officer would ordinarily be required to perform the duty. A Post Quartermaster has more complicated duties to perform than the Quartermaster of a marching command, as he will usually have a greater amount and variety of property to account for, and the work required of him embraces nearly every sort of labor performed in the Army.

340. The same general principles, however, prevail, no matter what the command is, and what has already been stated for Regimental Quartermasters (par. 282) is all that can be said without going into details beyond the compass of this work.

341. COMMISSARY.-The same general remarks that have been made of the Quartermaster apply to the Commissary. Acting Regimental, Brigade and Division Commissaries are appointed in the same way, by the commanders where the positions are not filled by officers from the Commissary Department. What has already been said for the Regimental Commissary, is all that can be given in general terms regarding the duties of Commissaries; the modifications necessary in the different commands will occur to any officer who is capable of performing the duty for a Regiment.

342. ENGINEER.-In the absence of an officer of the Engineer Department, a Lieutenant, or other officer of the line, must be selected frequently to perform the duties belonging to this department. Such a selection would be a compliment, indicating that the officer possessed a knowledge beyond his duties in the line-, in fact, the selection of any young officer of the line to perform any staff duty is a compliment as compared with his companions, but the Engineer's duties, it has always been conceded, require a greater and more varied knowledge of military science than those of any other officer of the Army.

343. The selection of lines of defence; the construction of fortifications; reconnaissance of fortified places, and plans for attack; works for the defence of fortified places; reconnoisances and surveys in the field, and the preparation of maps and charts; the construction of bridges and passage of rivers; the laying out of lines and construction of materials for siege operations, etc., constitute the proper part of an Engineer officer's duty, that may be learned to a greater or less extent by all officers of the Army, varying from a knowledge of the simplest rifle-pit to the erection of a permanent bastion front.

344. The administrative duty of an Engineer officer involves another and entirely different kind of knowledge, pertaining to the disbursement of money, the purchase of materials, the direction of mechanics and other workmen, the care and accountability of every kind of public property, and the reports and returns peculiar to the Engineer Corps.

345. Like other acting appointments, the Acting Engineer officer becomes equally responsible with the officers of the Engineer Department, in the performance of his duties. Regulations are published and circulated by the Engineer Bureau in Washington, showing what books are required to be kept, what reports and returns are required, and the time of making them, and to whom they are sent. By application to the Chief of Engineers at Washington' the regulations, instructions, blank forms, etc., necessary are supplied.

346. JUDGE ADVOCATE.-Officers of the line, without reference to grade, are liable to be detailed as Judge Advocate, either temporarily and for a particular court-martial, or permanently as a staff officer to a corps or department commander. The duties of the Judge Advocate of a court-martial have already been given (par. 162).

347. As a staff officer he reviews the proceedings of courts-martial ordered by the General, and calls his attention to the points of each case, and suggests the necessary action; he examines the charges and specifications sent in to headquarters, and advises the General with regard to what is necessary, whether they require correction, or whether the matters are of sufficient importance to merit a trial or not; he is, in fact, the legal adviser and counsellor of the General in military law and customs of war.

348. The General commanding the corps or department recommends the officer he desires appointed as Judge Advocate on his staff, through the Adjutant General's department, to the President who makes the appointment, which must be confirmed by the Senate. (Act July 17, 1862, sec. 6.) The officer thus appointed is entitled to the local rank of Major of Cavalry, with the same pay and emoluments.

349. These Judge Advocates are under the general direction of the Judge Advocate General. They should be officers possessing general legal knowledge, and a special knowledge of Courts-Martial and the Customs of War. They are liable to be detailed to act on Courts-Martial in addition to their staff duties.

350. ORDNANCE OFFICER.-In the absence of an officer of the Ordnance Corps, line officers are detailed to act as Officers of Ordnance whenever the command is large enough to justify such an appointment. No additional rank is conferred by this Acting appointment.

351. The duty of the Ordnance Officer is to anticipate the wants of the command in reference to all articles supplied by the Ordnance Department that may be required, but principally a supply of arms and ammunition. The requisitions for Ordnance are referred to him for revision, and are consolidated by him, and the stores drawn and distributed as the requisitions are filled.

352. An Ammunition Train is usually attached to each division in the field, with a sufficient number of wagons to transport the amount of ammunition required to be kept on hand. This train is usually under the direction of the Ordnance Officer in all matters relating to the packing and camping. The wagons are furnished by the Quartermaster's department, and kept in repair by the Quartermaster. The Ordnance Officer reports to, and receives his instructions from the immediate commander.

353. "The Instructions for making Ordnance Returns," prepared by the Ordnance Department for distribution, are so complete that nothing remains to be said on the accountability of property in this department. The only trouble is that the "Instructions" are general, and it is a little difficult for a young officer to pick out, from what was intended to cover every case that might occur throughout the entire Army, the part that applies to him.

354. It is, however, ordinarily a simple matter of receipts and issues, and, if invoices and receipts are always prepared beforehand and signed immediately upon the transfer of the property, the difficulties of delay and change of troops are avoided. Ordinarily the Ordnance Officer would have no expenditures; all expenditures would be made by the company and battery commanders.

355. MUSTERING OFFICER.-Officers of the line are detailed, when necessary, as Mustering Officers. When troops are required from the States by the Federal Government, before they can be considered in service they must first be inspected and mustered by an officer appointed for the purpose by the War Department, who has rolls prepared and verified by an actual muster and inspection, and his certificate to that effect, and the State and General Government each furnished with a copy. This is called Mustering into Service, and the officer detailed to make the inspection and prepare the rolls is the Mustering Officer.

356. If, in addition, there is a bounty or advance pay to be paid, he may be required to do this, and then he is also called a Disbursing Officer. This adds greatly to the responsibility and difficulties of the duty. In the recent rebellion the Mustering and Disbursing Officers were responsible for very large sums of money.

357. The accessions and reductions in Volunteer Regiments by enlistments and by expiration of term service require a check, in the person of some responsible officer, in order that no Regiment exceeds its allowance of either men or officers, and that men be discharged when their term of service expires, that officers may promptly enter upon their duties upon promotion; for this purpose a Commissary of Musters is allowed for each corps or department and an Assistant Commissary of Musters for each Division.

358. The duties of Commissary of Musters and the Assistants are fully laid down in General Orders No. 48 and 366, of 1863. But as their duties will vary in the details according to the laws which govern the calling out of additional troops, their duties can here be stated only in general terms.

359. It is his duty to see that the original rolls of each Company and Regiment, on entering service, are correct in every particular, that the proper allowance of officers and men is not exceeded, and that the Company and Regiment are organized according to law. That the men and officers correspond to the names on the rolls, and that they are able-bodied and efficient, and that the Government is not intentionally or otherwise defrauded in the number or character of the troops.

360. In mustering out of service similar precautions constitute his duty; he must see that the rolls are correct, and that the muster out is either in obedience to proper authority, or by expiration of term of service, and that the papers are correct, so that neither the government nor the officer or soldier is defrauded.

361. The system of Musters does not apply to the enlistment of regular troops or their discharge, although the principles involved are precisely similar. The Muster-in roll of any number of volunteers is nothing more than the consolidated descriptive roll of these men on entering the service; and the Muster-out roll is a consolidated final statement of any number of men discharged from service. "The instructions for Mustering and Disbursing officers," issued by the War Department, contain all the principles involved in making musters.

362. PROVOST MARSHAL-Provost Marshals are of two kinds. The strictly Military Provost Marshal is a Military Police officer, whose duty it is to suppress marauding and depredations, and to prevent all kinds of disturbances; to keep order and regulate drinking establishments and other resorts, and prevent drunkenness, and all kinds of disorders; to enforce orders with regard to the conduct of a camp or city, and regulations for the markets, hotels, taverns, and places of public amusement; to make searches, seizures, and arrests; to execute sentences of military courts, involving imprisonment and corporeal or capital punishment.

363. The Provost Marshal takes charge of all prisoners, whether captured from the enemy, or otherwise held; he arrests stragglers and other offenders of the command, and forwards them to their proper regiments and companies, with the written charges against them; he has the supervision of the passes of officers and soldiers, and signs the passes to citizens authorized within the lines for trade or other purposes; he investigates complaints of citizens arising from the conduct of the troops; and may have charge of scouts and spies employed in the command.

364. Such is the character of the duties that are usually assigned to the Provost Marshal, but usually only some part of them would fall to his lot at one time, unless at the headquarters of an army, where the Provost Marshal might have all the foregoing, and more too, to attend to. It is only in time of war that a Provost Marshal is greatly needed, and then he is an officer of great importance, and should not be dispensed with, and he should be selected with reference to his fitness and capacity for the duty.

365. To establish a bureau to control the enrollment of the militia, the enlistment of volunteers and to execute the draft the Provost Marshal General's Department was organized, first by the War Department, and subsequently by act of Congress. (G. 0., No. 140, 1862; Act March 3d, 1863, sec. 5.) Provost Marshals were appointed for each Congressional District, each Territory, and the District of Columbia, and Deputy Provost Marshals to assist them were authorized, who, in addition to enrolling and drafting, were charged with the arrest and confinement of deserters, spies, and persons resisting or interfering with the enrollment or draft.

366. The District Provost Marshals were appointed from civil life, and were under the orders of the Provost Marshal of the State, and all received their orders and instructions from the Provost Marshal General at Washington. This Provost Marshal system, improperly named, was called into existence by the necessity of raising large armies to suppress the rebellion, which being achieved, the necessity for such a bureau no longer exists, although there is no doubt a bureau where the enrollment of the male population of the country could be kept correctly, would be of vast assistance in the event of another war.

367. In the field the Provost Marshals were selected from the line officers, and varied in rank from Lieutenants to Generals. They were attached to brigades, divisions, corps, and armies, and often local Provost Marshals for cities, towns, and districts, were appointed, and even detachments, operating independently for a few days, had their Provost Marshals for the time being to look after stragglers, marauders, and pillagers, and to take charge of prisoners.

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